Willing (as voluntarists from Rousseau to Marx to Lenin appreciate) is an individual activity, but political will only begins with an individual's voluntary commitment to and participation in a collective project.
Needless to say, like any consistent voluntarist, Fanon is critical of distorted conceptions of will that turns it into one of its several opposites--instinctive reflex, unthinking 'fervour', 'blind' impulse.
He asserts that the voluntarist account of criminal liability is purely descriptive.
Hence, the voluntarist account may allow morally suspect social norms and their regressive effects to persist in the criminal law.
And Cudworth is quite explicit in claiming to prove that voluntarists must appeal to an "antecedent obligation," and not simply an antecedent conditional truth about obligations.
Cudworth argues like this: (3) the voluntarist has to admit that in order for his theory to be true, God--or at least His commands--have to be pretty special.
Below I present three traditions that fall within the entitlement approach: the mutual benefit tradition, the communitarian tradition, and the voluntarist
, as well as objectivists, adopt this first approach.
To effectively defend the view that duress reduces the actor's culpability, we must focus on something that, curiously enough, is downplayed not only by Duff but by many voluntarists
(typified by Hart and Michael Moore (52)) as well as by character theorists (such as Kahan and Nussbaum): the psychological pressure that a person characteristically feels when she is made the object of a serious threat.
The intellectual context for Bernard, as well as the other thinkers discussed in this book (Augustine, Pseudo-Dionysius, John of Damascus, Anselm, Abelard, Aquinas, Henry of Ghent, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, and a substantial number of lesser-known voluntarists
, intellectualists, and Renaissance and Reformation figures, as well as Luther) was clearly the concern--both pastoral and theoretical--of Christian moral theologians with sin and salvation (indeed, the editors identify six non-Aristotelian contexts for the medieval discussion).
often objected to such compromising of the will's autonomy.
It is from Aristotle after all that medieval voluntarists
get their basic principle that only the voluntary, only what we control, is praised or blamed.