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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA) and KeyGen Biotech (Nanjing, China).
Matthew B Klusas is Senior Director of Corporate and Business Development for the American Type Culture Collection, an independent, private, nonprofit biological resource center.
The human normal (WRL-68) and breast cancer (MDA-MB 231) cell lines were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 4.
Answering these questions required the use of numerous subject-specific databases and tools, such as Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Gene Expression Omnibus, PubChem, Entrez Gene, Natural Standard, American Type Culture Collection, SIDER 2, TOXNET, and PharmGKB, among others.
Typically, standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) test organisms representing the basic classes of microorganisms (Gram negative, Gram positive, spore-former, fungus) along with actual environmental isolates from the client's facility should be used in the qualification.
All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and selective agar media were employed for the growth of microbial strains.
Cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen and lyophilization are recommended and used by the American Type Culture Collection [12].
LJ media were tested by inoculation of known American type culture control strain of H37Rv.
Escherichia coli MM294; Carolina Biological Supply) and bacteria purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090, Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 23355, and Providencia stuartii ATCC 35031).
Station Square would be pedestrianised, with Princes Drive re-routed around the station, leaving a flat open square which it is hoped will create a cafe type culture.
2A] 1:100 IA IgG Neat H1 IgG 1:100 H3 IgG 1:100 H1-H3 IgG 1:100 H5 IgG 1:100 Abbreviations: ATCC, American Type Culture Collection; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FLW, Fort Leonard Wood (Missouri); FM, Fort Monmouth (New Jersey); IA, influenza A; IgG, immunoglobulin G;WS, Wilson Smith.
coli harbouring reference plasmids pUC18 and RP4 were procured from MACS Collection of Microorganisms at Agharkar Research Institute, Pune and Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) Chandigarh, India (Table I).