Transparency

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Related to translucency: transparent, nuchal translucency

Transparency

The state in which all relevant information is fully and freely available to the public. Nearly every analyst agrees that transparent markets are desirable because they lead to greater efficiency. Laws and regulations exist in most jurisdictions encouraging or mandating transparency. For example, the SEC requires disclosure forms declaring a great many different actions when or immediately after they occur. Likewise, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act is designed to increase transparency in accounting. A minority view holds that these laws and regulations intended to create transparent markets in fact reduce efficiency. Others contend that markets are efficient with or without transparency. See also: Efficient market hypothesis.

transparency

The full, accurate, and timely disclosure of information.
Case Study Ford Motor Company executives indicated in spring 2001 that the company planned to provide shareholders and analysts with greater transparency of the firm's financial results. As part of the improved transparency, Ford was expected to report separate results from its Premier Automotive Group (PAG), comprising Aston Martin, Jaguar, Lincoln, Land Rover, and Volvo Cars. In the prior year Ford reported an operating loss of $35 million in Europe only because income from PAG and customer services mostly offset operating losses of nearly $1 billion in its other European operations. At the time Ford did not report profits for individual brands or product groups. Transparency permits shareholders and analysts a greater understanding of a firm's operations, including which parts of the firm are most and least profitable. This, in turn, places greater pressure on the firm's management to produce acceptable results in all facets of a company's operations.

Transparency.

Transparency is a measure of how much information you have about the markets where you invest, the corporations whose stocks or bonds you buy, or the mutual funds or other investments you select.

For example, in order to achieve maximum transparency in US markets, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires corporations to disclose all information that might have an impact on their financial status so that investors can make fully informed decisions.

Real-time trading information, increasingly available to individuals as well as institutional investors, and linked pricing systems are other steps toward complete transparency.

References in periodicals archive ?
Open neural tube defects were diagnosed due to the presence of small cystic swelling at the region of the spine in one case, who also had an increased nuchal translucency and obliteration of the intracranial translucency (Fig.
Figure 1a shows that the four treated MPPs were not translucent (translucency score = 1) at day 0 but during the 12 storage days, their translucency score increased significantly (p < 0.
Screening for Down's syndrome by fetal nuchal translucency measurement in a general obstetric population.
Discussion: once the presence of aneuploidy has been eliminated, the risk of an adverse perinatal result does not become statistically reduced until nuchal measurement of translucency reaches 3.
Architectural detail and sections of structure, combined with an interest in illusions provide the starting point for the pieces whilst the inherent qualities of the clay do the rest - its whiteness offers a pure blank canvas for the application of colour and its translucency enhances any varying degrees of luminosity.
Multiple studies have shown combined testing with nuchal translucency, free [beta]-human chorionic gonadotropin (free [beta]-hCG), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is more effective than nuchal translucency alone.
Glass and steel envelop an assemblage that becomes formless through translucency and reflection, and indeterminate through the patina of weathering.
Wall thicknesses up to 2" offer superior resistance to impacts and environmental stress cracking, and provide translucency for easy material level viewing.
Furthermore, to appropriately conclude that there was no significant difference between free [beta]-hCG and ITA when these markers are used in conjunction with nuchal translucency and PAPP-A, the authors should have provided the statistical power for their comparisons.
A team led by Professor Mark Kilby, Peter Thompson and Bill Martin, offer various tests such as the Nuchal Translucency scan for Down's Syndrome, which are carried out during the first three months of pregnancy.
A key earlier work, Memento Mori, 2002, which was made for "Grey Gardens," a summer exhibition at Michael Kohn Gallery that year, set up many of Hill's principal engagements--reflection, translucency, transparency, and the various planes of the actual and apparent--in an icier manner.