The original idea of field effect transistors
dated back to the German scientist Julius Lilienfield in 1925 and a structure closely resembling the MOSFET was proposed in 1935 by Oskar Heil but materials problems foiled early attempts to make functioning devices.
The new transistors
can be deposited on low cost flexible substrates such as PET and PEN film, aluminum or stainless steel foil.
Wernersson described the new nanowire transistors
last month at the IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting in Washington, D.
Just a decade ago, the state-of-the-art process technology was 250nm, meaning transistor
dimensions were approximately 5.
-- a type of electrical on/off switch -- is the key component of the integrated circuit, or microchip.
Akira Endoh of Fujitsu Laboratories in Atsugi, Japan, rates the advance as an important step toward the realization of the terahertz transistor
uses a modified design and IBM's proven silicon germanium (SiGe) technology to reach speeds of 210 GigaHertz (GHz) while drawing just a milliamp of electrical current.
Adding to the 50nm design improvements, the SEG transistor
introduces a multi-layered dielectric layer (ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2) to resolve weak electrical features.
In contrast, prototype transistors
made from his team's new material are 10 times as conductive as the silicon transistors
used in today's liquid-crystal displays.
IBM researchers have built the world's first array of transistors
out of carbon nanotubes -- tiny cylinders of carbon atoms that measure as small as 10 atoms across and are 500 times smaller than today's silicon-based transistors
contains no semiconductor materials and makes use of voltage-controlled quantum tunneling to determine the flow of electrons.
laser is "a major technology breakthrough in high-speed optoelectronics," comments K.