transaction


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Related to transaction: Transaction processing, Transaction Processing System

Transaction

The delivery of a security by a seller and its acceptance by the buyer.

Trade

The voluntary exchange of goods and/or services for money or an equivalent good or service. In ancient times and frequently even now, trade was conducted through the bartering of goods. In developed economies, trades are usually made with an intermediary, especially money or credit. Trade is regulated by laws of the particular jurisdiction in which a trade is made. Common restrictions include prohibitions on selling stolen property or non-existent goods. Most states, however, have much more complex regulations for trade, depending on the complexity of goods and services traded in their jurisdiction. States also regulate trade between parties in different jurisdictions. For example, two countries may encourage trade between each other, or, more famously, discourage trade through quotas and/or tariffs.

In modern finance, trade especially refers to trade on securities exchanges. For example, the sale of a stock from one investor to another is known as a trade. This type of trade is regulated by special agencies in the appropriate jurisdiction; trade in the United States is regulated by the SEC, among other organizations. See also: Countertrade, Free trade, Protectionism.

transaction

See trade.

transaction

the exchange of an INPUT, GOOD, SERVICE or ASSET between two or more individuals or firms. Transactions can take place on an ‘arm's length’ basis, with individuals and firms buying and selling through a MARKET, or transactions may be ‘internalized’ and conducted through an internal ORGANIZATION, involving exchanges between the various departments/divisions of a VERTICALLY INTEGRATED firm (or DIVERSIFIED FIRM or MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE).

Transactions have a number of characteristics, which have an economic significance, including their ‘size’ (e.g. the transfer of a single item or large number of items), their ‘frequency’ (e.g. transfers may occur on a ‘one-off basis or may occur continuously, daily or weekly), and their ‘complexity’ (e.g. transfers may be relatively simple or highly technical and sophisticated).

The specification of transactions and the terms of exchange (e.g. prices to be paid) are usually incorporated into a legally binding CONTRACT between the parties involved when transfers take place through the market.

Transactions are conducted within the firm through established procedures and protocols governing input procurement, production, distribution and marketing. Typically, a system of internal TRANSFER PRICES is used to value interdepartmental exchanges of inputs, goods and services.

A key focus of modern theories of the firm and markets are the determinants of the relative efficiencies of conducting transactions through the market or within the firm. A number of considerations are relevant to this issue:

  1. the relative costs of transactions through the market compared to within the firm per se (see TRANSACTION COSTS);
  2. the importance of transaction costs vis-a-vis the firm's total supply costs (production and selling); and
  3. strategic considerations such as controllability of inputs. For example, the transaction costs of using the market may be substantially higher than transactions within the firm arising from the need to find suitable external input suppliers and distributors and draw up and monitor contracts with them. Superficially, this would indicate that an internal organization is preferable to using the market. However, the ‘savings’ on transaction costs may be offset by higher internal administrative costs and AGENCY COSTS.

transaction

The EXCHANGE of an INPUT, GOOD, SERVICE or ASSET between two or more individuals or firms. Transactions can take place on an ‘arm‘s-length’ basis, with individuals and firms buying and selling through a MARKET, or transactions may be ‘internalized’ and conducted through an internal ORGANIZATION, involving exchanges between the various departments/divisions of a VERTICALLY INTEGRATED firm (or DIVERSIFIED FIRM or MULTINATIONAL COMPANY).

Transactions have a number of characteristics that have an economic significance, including their ‘size’ (e.g. the transfer of a single item or large number of items), their ‘frequency’ (e.g. transfers may occur on a ‘one-off basis or may occur continuously, daily or weekly), and their ‘complexity’ (e.g. transfers may be relatively simple or highly technical and sophisticated).


transaction

The specification of transactions and the terms of exchange (e.g. prices to be paid) are usually incorporated into a legally binding CONTRACT between the parties involved when transfers take place through the market.

Transactions are conducted within the firm through established procedures and protocols governing input procurement, production, distribution and marketing. Typically, a system of internal TRANSFER PRICES is used to value interdepartmental exchanges of inputs, goods and services.

A key focus of modern theories of the firm and markets are the determinants of the relative efficiencies of conducting transactions through the market or within the firm. A number of considerations are relevant to this issue:

  1. the relative costs of transactions through the market compared to within the firm per se (see TRANSACTION COSTS);
  2. the importance of transaction costs vis-à-vis the firm's total supply costs (production and selling); and
  3. strategic considerations, such as controllability of inputs. For example, the transaction costs of using the market may be substantially higher than transactions within the firm, arising from the need to find suitable external input suppliers and distributors and to draw up and monitor contracts with them. Superficially, this would indicate that an internal organization is preferable to using the market. The ‘savings’ on transaction costs, however, may be offset by higher internal administrative costs and AGENCY COSTS.

Moreover, these savings may be small relative to the firm's total operating costs, which might then be inflated by having to undertake uneconomic operations. For example, if a firm undertakes self-supply of inputs, its own needs for these inputs may be too small to generate cost savings available to outside specialist suppliers through exploiting ECONOMIES OF SCALE. Thus, any savings on transaction costs would be more than offset by higher (self) production costs (see MAKE OR BUY). This said, it may be more advantageous strategically for a firm to become its own input supplier despite higher internal production costs, so as to have full control of a vital input rather than risk being ‘held to ransom’ by powerful outside suppliers. See INTERNALIZATION, ASSET SPECIFICITY, ASYMMETRICAL INFORMATION, MORAL HAZARD, ADVERSE SELECTION, OUTSOURCING.

References in classic literature ?
Bryce of course divined that Dunstan wanted to sell the horse, and Dunstan knew that he divined it (horse-dealing is only one of many human transactions carried on in this ingenious manner); and they both considered that the bargain was in its first stage, when Bryce replied ironically--
My father was a shrewd, energetic, and ambitious Manchester man, who understood an exchange of any sort as a transaction by which one man should lose and the other gain.
My dear Harry, I did not treat it as a business transaction, and I did not make any formal proposal.
No transaction was too large or too involved to be settled over its wires.
Before fifteen days were over our renegade had already purchased an excellent vessel with room for more than thirty persons; and to make the transaction safe and lend a colour to it, he thought it well to make, as he did, a voyage to a place called Shershel, twenty leagues from Algiers on the Oran side, where there is an extensive trade in dried figs.
Were the people regarded in this transaction as forming one nation, the will of the majority of the whole people of the United States would bind the minority, in the same manner as the majority in each State must bind the minority; and the will of the majority must be determined either by a comparison of the individual votes, or by considering the will of the majority of the States as evidence of the will of a majority of the people of the United States.
I have just discovered that the warrior who loved that woman has learned of your part in the transaction.
He set down the candle which he had been carrying all this time, and with a steady hand entered the date, the nature, and the amount of the transaction.
I told him he might have a dozen if he wished, but that it would not be wise to have more than one solicitor engaged in one transaction, as only one could act at a time, and that to change would be certain to militate against his interest.
And then it was that, won by his mild charity, seeing that he was acquainted with all the habits and customs of my own country, and considering also that pardon for the only crime of which I was really guilty might come with a double power from lips so benevolent and kind, I besought him to receive my confession, under the seal of which I recounted the Auteuil affair in all its details, as well as every other transaction of my life.
and if he forebore to return a borrowed half-crown no detail of the transaction will be omitted.
Toward midnight, after he had left the countess' apartments, he was sitting upstairs in a shabby dressing gown, copying out the original transaction of the Scottish lodge of Freemasons at a table in his low room cloudy with tobacco smoke, when someone came in.