subsidy

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Subsidy

Financial assistance provided by a government to another entity, usually a business or industry. Subsidies are given to keep otherwise unprofitable ventures in business; for example, a family farm unable to compete with agribusiness may receive a subsidy from the government to maintain operations. Subsidies may also exist as a protectionist measure to make domestic goods less expensive than imports. Proponents of subsidies argue that they maintain employment in the domestic economy while critics state that they distort the market and make it less efficient. See also: Bailout.

subsidy

the provision of finance and other resources by the government or a firm to support a business activity or person. Subsidies can be direct (cash grants, interest free LOANS etc.) or indirect (DEPRECIATION write-offs, RENT rebates) and can be used for a variety of purposes. They include:
  1. PRODUCTION subsidies: the subsidization of suppliers by government to encourage them to increase the output of particular products by partially offsetting their production costs or even financing losses. The objective may be to expand production at a low price of some product which is deemed to be ‘essential’ (for example a particular foodstuff thereby also subsidizing consumers); or, for example, to assist in the start-up of a new firm (see ENTERPRISE INVESTMENT SCHEME) or industry (see INDUSTRIAL POLICY), and encourage firms to locate in particular areas (see REGIONAL POLICY). Also such subsidies are used to support failing firms and declining industries to facilitate orderly restructuring. See PROTECTIONISM;
  2. EXPORT subsidies: the subsidization by the government of exports in general or of a particular product which is exported, as a means of assisting the country's balance of payments;
  3. EMPLOYMENT subsidies: the subsidization of wages by the government as an incentive to businesses to provide more job opportunities, thereby reducing the level of unemployment in the economy;
  4. INCOME subsidies: the subsidization of persons through government transfer payment systems (for example, social security benefits) in order to allow them to enjoy some minimum standard of living;
  5. cross-subsidization: businesses themselves regularly practise internal or cross-subsidization as a means of expanding their activities, for example, using the profits generated by established products to finance NEW-PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT and DIVERSIFICATION into new-product markets.

subsidy

the provision of finance and other resources to support a business activity or person by the government. Subsidies can be direct (cash grants, interest-free LOANS, etc.) or indirect (depreciation write-offs, rent rebates) and can be used for a variety of purposes, including:
  1. PRODUCTION subsidies: the subsidization of suppliers by government to encourage them to increase the output of particular products by partially offsetting their production costs or even financing losses. The objective may be to expand production of some product at a low price that is deemed to be ‘essential’ (e.g. a particular foodstuff, thereby also subsidizing consumers); or, for example, to assist in the start-up of a new firm (see ENTERPRISE INVESTMENT SCHEME) or industry (see INDUSTRIAL POLICY) and encourage firms to locate in particular areas (see REGIONAL POLICY). In the first cases, subsidies are used as an instrument of income redistribution by reducing the price of products such as bread and milk that figure prominently in the budget of lower income groups or by directly subsidizing incomes.
  2. EXPORT subsidies: the subsidization of a particular product that is exported, or exports in general, by the government as a means of assisting the country's balance of payments.
  3. EMPLOYMENT subsidies: the subsidization of wages by the government as an incentive to businesses to provide more job opportunities, thereby reducing the level of unemployment in the economy INCOME subsidies: the subsidization of persons through government transfer payment systems (for example, social security benefits) in order to allow them to enjoy some minimum standard of living.

Subsidies encourage increased output of favoured products but distort domestic RESOURCE ALLOCATION processes in general and can adversely affect international trade. See REDISTRIBUTION-OFINCOME PRINCIPLE OF TAXATION, PROTECTIONISM, CROSS-SUBSIDIZATION.

See also BOSTON MATRIX.

subsidy

Benefits granted to persons or groups in order to encourage behavior or outcomes deemed important to society. Rent subsidies encourage construction of adequate affordable housing because the owner can be ensured of an income stream as long as the housing meets government requirements.The same subsidy encourages better consumer choices because of the availability of affordable alternatives. Tax credits to contractors for energy-efficient construction are subsidies to encourage the use of energy-efficient alternatives.

References in periodicals archive ?
The government had previously asked Indian Oil (IOC), Bharat Petroleum (BPCL) and Hindustan Petroleum (HPCL) to raise rates of subsidised domestic LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) by Rs.
In 2013, the figure rose to 1,604 subsidised housing units in the territories and 513 in 2014.
In October, the subsidised health care services for patients that required treatment abroad were valued at EGP 1.
The law criminalises the smuggling or attempting the smuggling of subsidised oil derivatives, which it considers theft of public money that requires legal punishment.
You don't have to own the property either; if you are renting you could still get free or subsidised insulation, as long as you get permission from your landlord.
The hefty market price of an LPG cylinder, which is more than twice the subsidised price of ` 410.
He wanted to know how a household can manage with only six subsidised cylinders when more are required," a person who attended the meeting told Media.
On September 13, while deciding to increase price of diesel by Rs 5 litre, the government had also restricted the number of subsidised LPG cylinders to each household in a year to six.
The authority is also to take a detailed look at its subsidised services across the town with a view to making further savings.
A KZHF source said that President Khalifa has directed them to expand the subsidisation project to include new food items such as dates, cooking oil, juices, various types of water and tomato paste, in addition to the rice and flour which have already been sold to citizens at subsidised prices since long.
Summary: Emirates National Oil Company (ENOC) sent out a statement outlining the cause and effect of occurrences earlier this year, from the closure of some of its stations to the burdens of subsidised oil prices.
Around half of the canteens were subsidised by employers compared with 64 per cent a decade ago.