Persistent structural unemployment
that penalizes those with higher education creates the conditions for "brain drain" while also creating disincentives for continued education.
Long-term unemployment may result in structural unemployment
if workers' skills erode.
As the number of jobs lost in comparison with the pre-crisis employment trend continues to increase and structural unemployment
remains a major problem, policymakers need to implement more supportive macroeconomic policies and active labour market policies," said Matthias Kempf, the UN's team leader for the report.
Birmingham has a long-term structural unemployment
problem and there is a need to focus on getting apprentices into business.
Reducing Structural Unemployment
and Driving Innovation Requires a New Approach to Skills development
Long-term job loss, structural unemployment
, unusual seasonality and below-average compensation all combine to paint a difficult picture of the local labor market and economy.
However, he acknowledged several negative factors impacting the economy including lack of resources available to fund public expenditures, increase in internal and external debt, structural unemployment
and problems associated with domestic and international migration.
On the other hand structural unemployment
(Lalive, 2007; Mondschean & Oppenheimer, 2007; Wood, 1988; Standing, 1983) is normally applied to people who lose their job because the job ceases to exist (say due to technological change).
Disintermediation, which is part of structural unemployment
, is another area where jobs are going away, resulting in displaced workers.
As a small open economy without an exchange rate instrument to mitigate shocks, it is also essential that collective bargaining framework is improved in a manner that meaningfully addresses high structural unemployment
and ensures changes in wages are commensurate with those in productivity.
Structural imbalance between the pattern of labor supplied and demanded yields excess unemployment, which they call "structural unemployment
" More precisely, they specify that structural unemployment
exists when, given the configuration of vacancies, it would be possible to reduce unemployment (increase the job hiring rate) by moving an unemployed worker from one sector to another.
According to the study's authors, the main reason for the extreme level of social inequality and structural unemployment
, especially among young people, is a socially selective and qualitatively inadequate education system.