Just as I described the differences between standard deviation and

standard error in this editorial, I plan to help readers navigate this increasingly complex range of statistical testing being reported in results sections in JVIB in future Statistical Sidebars.

In this section, we expand the discussion of

standard errors with a simple application: a single regression coefficient.

The

standard error statistic is a measurement of sampling error.

The

standard error of a statistic can be used to construct confidence intervals, or likely ranges for the true value given the specific estimate obtained from the sample.

The same ICC calculations were also performed for the

standard errors of disability estimates, and they were used for calculating between the items both before and after imputation.

While the discussion that follows concentrates on the effects of alcohol consumption and results from specification tests, appendix 1 (for binge drinking) shows the IV coefficients and marginal effect

standard errors of all explanatory variables on both absenteeism measures.

In this study we estimate

standard errors of month on month (MoM) and YoY inflation in Pakistan using the stochastic approach, following Selvanathan and Selvanathan (2006).

If the null hypothesis of exogeneity is rejected, OLS estimates are inconsistent and hence conclusions should be based on IV estimates; failure to reject the null means that OLS estimates are preferable because of their smaller

standard errors.

The

standard errors for these models are only slightly higher than the OAN SR.

Of these, three articles indicate whether the analyses account for sampling design when calculating

standard errors.

Two alternative approaches were taken to estimating the

standard errors of the coefficients in the specified model.

Standard errors based on this variance formula will be used in the next section, which studies estimates of the trend, gap, and business cycle component of several economic time series.