The spinal column
is a complex biological structure, containing 33-34 vertebrae, 344 joints and 24 intervertebral discs.
Clack and her colleagues found that the vertebrae in some segments of Ichthyostega's spinal column
were shaped differently than those in other segments.
In a retrospective cohort study of 43 patients with failed back surgery syndrome who underwent subsequent spinal column
stimulation (SCS) surgery at least 2 years before the study began, 42% said their quality of life worsened or did not improve following SCS surgery, and 50% said they were dissatisfied with the SCS surgery results, said Dr.
The two-word phrase is defined as follows in American Heritage Dictionary, 4th edition: "A congenital defect in which the spinal column
is imperfectly closed so that part of the meninges or spinal cord protrudes, often resulting in hydrocephalus and other neurological disorders.
The only way to guarantee that AMR meat is free of nervous-system tissue is to require meat processors to remove the entire spinal column
(bones and all), not just the spinal cord, before sending cattle carcasses through their machinery (see "Making Meat Salt, p.
In general, assuming the rest of the spinal column
is not compromised, single level fusion does not necessarily prevent a return.
Foraminoplasty involves the use of Holmium laser energy through an endoscope to create an opening through the foramen into the epidural space (through which the nerves of the spinal column
extend), by vaporizing a small amount of non-load bearing bone in the spine.
Poor alignment of the spinal column
when a vertebra slips forward onto the one below it can place pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots at that place.
This not only hurts somewhat but places the header in a compromised position: receiving an impact with the head in a straight line with the spinal column
- which can be dangerous.
Another advantage is that meat is removed from the carcase without exposing the spinal column
After numbing the skin with a local anesthetic, the anesthesiologist inserts a thin needle into the outer layer of the spinal column
, called the epidural space.
In addition, if the chair cushion is not properly designed, the load on the spinal column
presses the top of the pelvis, forcing this bone to rotate forward.