fragmentation

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Related to sleep fragmentation: polysomnography, polysomnogram

Fragmentation

1. A means of production in which different parts of the supply chain are located in different countries. Fragmentation occurs to reduce costs of production. For example, the least expensive materials may be in India and the cheapest factory workers in China, while the target retail customer is in the United States or Canada. Fragmentation can occur most easily when there is free trade, or at least low tariffs between all the countries on the supply chain. See also: Globalization.

2. A situation in a decentralized market. This often renders investors unaware of the best price available for their trades, resulting in inefficiency in the market. Fragmentation has become less of a problem with the advent of electronic exchanges and other, similar products.

fragmentation

The lack of full interconnection of the various securities markets. Fragmentation can result in customer orders being sent to markets that do not offer the best available price. Critics claim the inefficiencies of fragmentation can be cured with a central order book that includes orders from all markets.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Reflections, the authors noted that prior studies showed reduced sleep fragmentation during ACV compared to PSV, but the minute ventilation and tidal volume were not similar in the modes in that study.
For instance, OSA related hypoxemia and markers of increased sympathetic tone and sleep fragmentation (arousal index) and daytime epinephrine levels were found to be related to both daytime and nocturnal ischemic ST-segment depression in the absence of CAD (46).
In the individual who suffers from untreated sleep apnoea, deficits may occur in a variety of brain functions, due both to sleep loss (in the form of sleep fragmentation or lack of slow wave sleep) (7,8) or recurrent hypoxaemia (7,9,10).
Moreover, studies looking for sleep fragmentation have not found it associated in any way with fibromyalgia.
However, the increased respiratory effort that ensues also causes frequent arousals and sleep fragmentation.
It must be emphasized, however, that patients with an RDI of less than 20 and patients with upper airway resistance syndrome can experience significant sleep fragmentation and excessive daytime sleepiness; therefore, treatment should be considered.
His work includes research on sleep loss, sleep fragmentation, and deviation from sleep processes including pharmacological effects and sleep pathologies.
We speculate that the resolution of the patient's skin condition may reflect the effects of increased tissue oxygenation during sleep, reduced sleep fragmentation, and/or a reduction in sympathetic tone associated with successful sleep apnea treatment.
The resulting reduction (hypopnea) or cessation (apnea) of airflow (inspiratory flow limitation) produces dips in oxygen saturation, increases in inspiratory efforts against the obstructed airway, and sleep fragmentation.
Severe form of Sleep apnoea is characterised by extended pauses in breathing, repetitive asphyxia, and sleep fragmentation.
Chronic sleep restriction and sleep fragmentation is one adverse outcome attributed to RLS and PLMs.
Insomnia remains a disorder with high unmet medical needs, including problems of frequent night time awakenings and difficulty falling back to sleep, sometimes referred to as sleep fragmentation.