The reduction of moisture content for the mass shrinkage
determination was monitored using a scale with 0.
From investigations on steel castings [5, 6, 7, 8, 16] that measured the stiffness of the specimens with shrinkages
by an extensometer during stress-controlled fatigue tests [5, 6, 7, 8] or tensile tests , it is known that the material's stiffness is influenced by the shrinkages
From the measured dimensions of the specimens and the nominal dimensions of the cavity--measured at room temperature--the linear shrinkages
were determined according to (1):
Tensile stresses occur when free shrinkage
The device was successfully used to measure wood shrinkage
stresses along the radial direction under high-temperature drying (Cheng et al.
Exceeding the precompression or the maximum drying intensity (= most negative previous pore water pressure) resulted in an intense shrinkage
and soil volume decrease.
was compared with transverse-to-flow shrinkage
, and, similarly, near-gate shrinkage
was compared with away-from-gate shrinkage
, using the plaque mold.
Both companies estimated shrinkage
using similar methodologies, generally multiplying a shrinkage
rate based on experience by the amount of sales for the period between the physical inventory and year-end.
The third geometry, a channel with a rib on the back edge, and the fourth, a channel with a third wall, both show the effects of structural support on warpage and illustrate the trade-off between stiffness and shrinkage
Meaningful comparisons should therefore be made on the basis of either constant shrinkage
8-13 are, respectively, the spatial distribution of the transition time, residual stress profiles in the thickness direction just before ejection and at equilibrium, final shrinkages
, strains built-up history during the molding cycle, and deformations.
In all cases, researchers show that a) thermal expansion in the radial and tangential axes is greater than that in the longitudinal axis; and b) moisture-induced shrinkage
and swelling is far more significant than thermal expansion.