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The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.


1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.


The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
A feasibility study of a family seizure management program: 'Be Seizure Smart.
Alternative Methods of Seizure Management (Freeman, Freeman, & Kelly, 2000; Hemingway, Freeman, Pillas, & Pyzik, 2001; Jarrar & Buchhalter, 2003; Farooqui, Boswell, Hemphill, & Pearlman, 2001) Therapy Description Remarks Ketogenic Ketotic state Exact mechanism diet initiated with is unknown.
This article provides an overview of the role of sleep and stress in adolescents with seizures and ways to monitor and modify your teen's lifestyle as part of seizure management.
If you have uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, learning more about your epilepsy through keeping a daily seizure diary, like the one used in this study, is an important step toward seizure management.
And the Walz family, of Pitman, NJ, has added a new weapon to its seizure management arsenal in the four-legged form of a golden retriever, named Cappy, which they acquired through a non-profit organization called Canine Assistants.
The intervention was individually tailored for each family member by (a) providing information about epilepsy, treatment, and seizure management according to the individual's knowledge base, (b) addressing unique concerns and fears, and (c) providing emotional support.
The Self-management Conceptual Framework (Buelow, 1996) was the basis for the interview guide, and questions were developed to explore treatment management, seizure management, and life management issues.
The launch of a first-of-its-kind Seizure Preparedness on-line resource that introduces practical skills, tools and essential information for seizure management was announced today by The Epilepsy Therapy Development Project (Epilepsy TDP), the non-profit parent organization of epilepsy.
The results may have clinical implications for medical, early childhood, and family support professionals in developing comprehensive seizure management plans.