In PNG (a Melanesian society) indigenous leadership in segmentary
societies is commonly based on clan leadership, except for a few areas in the New Guinea Islands and Papua regions which have a chief leadership system similar to the Polynesian leadership structure.
With the exception of the Somali-speaking Ogaden nomads, all the above mentioned groups are Arabic speaking pastoral-nomadic societies consisting of segmentary
Simply put, segmentary
lineages allow a society to operate strictly on the basis of kinship ties, without the need for a central government.
Windler, 'Representing the State in a Segmentary
Society: French Consuls in Tunis From the Ancien Regime to the Restoration', The Journal of Modern History, vol.
Maori social structure is often represented in terms of a segmentary
system composed of whanau (extended families), hapu (collections of whanau that make up sub-tribes or tribes), iwi (collections of hapu that compose tribes or peoples) and waka (canoes, i.
ANTHROPOLOGIST 661 (1967); and Segmentary
Opposition and the Theory of Games: A Study of Pathan Organization, 89 J.
Importantly, "ethnic groups, unlike races, are not mutually exclusive, but are structured in segmentary
hierarchies with each more inclusive segment subsuming ethnic groups which were contrastive at another level" (Keyes, 1974, p.
84) The claims of rival segments, including the descendants of Duncan II, had been pushed aside -- thus setting the stage for segmentary
strife and resistance to the descendants of Malcolm III and Margaret into the early thirteenth century.
In its second level of reading, this book, as a handbook for fortune-telling, enters life itself and mixes with it, thus enabling even a segmentary
reading of the text and a reading of the text in the second key different from the transparent side of the given model as a level of a Romanesque happening.
This Lucintel research report provides excellent understanding of recent industry scope and overview, global macroeconomic overview, relative market attractiveness by region, annual industry trend, emerging trends, industry forecasts, Porter's Five Forces analysis, product launches and merger and acquisitions that determine the regional and segmentary
opportunities, competitive landscape, and profitability trend and analysis of the major industry players.
Merlan and Rumsey (1991) have recuperated the term segmentary
to describe these shifting levels of identity for Highlands Papua New Guinea.
Therefore, it is argued, there is no evidence for a class-based society, with tribute flowing from smaller to larger settlements, and an alternative of a more egalitarian and segmentary
society is inferred.