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Gainful employment. Strictly speaking, a job refers to employment by another person or company, but the word is often used to describe self-employment as well. Because individuals are compensated for their work at their jobs, these are considered necessary for a society to function. According to Keynesian economics, the money one earns from a job can create more jobs because the money creates demand for goods and services that must be provided. Supply-side economics, on the other hand, maintains that lower taxes are best for job creation.


  1. a work task or series of work tasks to be performed. For factory operatives the work tasks are often clearly defined as a specific set of machining or assembly operations. By contrast, at senior management level, work tasks are less clearly defined and managers have more discretion as to the range of tasks to be performed and how they are performed.
  2. a unit of good or service for which costs can be ascertained. The job or cost unit could consist of a single order. Alternatively, the job or cost unit could be a batch or group of identical products passing together through production.


a work task or series of work tasks to be performed in order to produce a good or service. Jobs differ in terms of skills, physical fitness, personality, etc., requirements, and in terms of the decision-making autonomy and responsibilities involved. Some jobs involve a wide-ranging set of work tasks while others may be broken down into a number of narrowly defined activities through a ‘division of labour’. Such SPECIALIZATION is often conducive to achieving high levels of labour PRODUCTIVITY in industries such as motor-car assembly that utilize mass production techniques. In other cases, productivity may be enhanced by grouping together larger numbers of work tasks to form individual jobs. Job design has an important effect on job satisfaction and thus levels of absenteeism, labour turnover, industrial disputes, etc., which affect productivity In some instances the process of specialization has been partially reversed by programmes of job enlargement (adding additional tasks to provide greater variety), 288

job rotation (where workers rotate jobs to reduce monotony) and job enrichment (where workers are given greater scope in deciding how tasks should be performed).

References in periodicals archive ?
Our Salary Survey can help IT pros get a sense of what they should be earning.
The Robert Walters Salary Survey provides an in-depth analysis of salaries earned around the world for both permanent and contract positions across a wide range of sectors.
Download the Hotelier Middle East app through iTunes to read more on the Salary Survey in the June Edition of Hotelier Middle East on your iPhone or iPad.
I recently changed jobs," mentioned one respondent, "and several of the dentists I interviewed with utilized DANB's salary survey for establishing salary.
For more comprehensive insight and detailed yearly salaries, please visit, request the latest Salary Survey, http://www.
Responses to the questionnaire will be used to form the basis of Construction Week 's 2015 Salary Survey, which will be published in December.
The sixth Hotelier Middle East Salary Survey is more comprehensive than ever before with almost 500 (490) hoteliers from across the GCC region providing responses - 102 more than last year.
We are excited to see what this year's Salary Survey will show us about the current state of job satisfaction and compensation trends," said Celeste Gudas, President and Founder of 24 Seven, Inc.
Now in its 13th edition, the annual Robert Walters Global Salary Survey has been helping clients and job-seekers determine current salaries for professional careers in Japan and across our network of 23 countries worldwide.
Working Woman magazine publishes an annual salary survey covering more than three dozen fields.
The Construction Week 2015 Salary Survey is now online.
Hotelier Middle East has launched the 2014 edition of the annual Hotelier Salary Survey with new questions on topical issues in the regio n.