These works provide fresh perspectives on some of the perennial issues of Reformation
scholarship: how to understand the relationship between the Reformation
and the movements of late medieval renewal that preceded it; how best to relate the Reformation
to the drive toward confessionalization that followed it; whether one should think in terms of a single Reformation
or of multiple reformations
, or some combination of both; how to weigh the influence of religious and non-religious factors on the origins, growth, and eventual shape of Reformation
Christianity; and finally, how to liberate Reformation
Studies from teleological interpretations of the past, while still showing its importance for the present.
Karin Maag's "Change and Continuity in Medieval and Early Modern Worship: The Practice of Worship in the Schools" explores the nexus between Reformation
theology and education.
The Welshman, John Penry, was hanged by Dr Carey's predecessor John Whitgift for suggesting that Reformation
was No Enemy and an Englishman, Richard Hurrel Froude, caused an uproar in the 19th century by suggesting that 'the [English] Reformation
was a broken bone badly set - it will have to be re-broken and set again'.
However, he believes that true reformation
is underway and is full of hope as, "We must suffer creation and the kingdom in communion with God.
10) For the most part, however, historians continued to focus on cities and the urban reformations
Two generations ago, the professorship on the Reformation
was the key appointment in Protestant theological seminaries.
Universities and their professors may have had greater influence on society in the Renaissance and Reformation
than in any era before or since.
The Impact of the English Reformation
, 1500-1640, edited by Peter Marshall.
Jean Delumeau's innovative article, "Les reformateurs et la superstition," Actes du colloque L'Amiral de Coligny et son temps (Paris, 1972), 451-487, focuses almost exclusively on critiques of heretical spiritualism put forth by the learned leaders of the European Reformations
This is not a reformation
of faith or theology, although that shaped the background, but rather a reformation
of political loyalty and amelioration of the common good.
That is regrettable in and of itself because of the determining role Spain, Portugal, and their overseas dominions played in the reformations
and in early modern history, hut it also helps reinforce the impression, inadvertently conveyed even by this fine volume, that preaching was fundamentally a Protestant enterprise: seven of the eleven chapters deal exclusively, or almost exclusively, with Protestant preaching, only two exclusively with Catholic.
Susan Wabuda discusses the impact of the Reformation
on the institution of marriage, showing that the dominance of husbands declined somewhat once marriage was no longer regarded as a sacrament.