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A classic investment fraud in which the operator pays promised high returns to current investors from the contributions made by new investors. Thus, funds are never invested in any productive assets but are simply paid out as a return to existing owners. The operator must continue to attract more and more investors in order to pay a return to those who have already committed their funds. Also called Ponzi scheme.
To use profits derived from a profitable security position in combination with borrowed money in order to acquire an even larger investment position. Pyramiding, which is very risky, allows an investor the possibility of greater profits by using a given amount of funds to control the maximum amount of securities.