In acute AR the heart looks with adequate size, but there is evidence of pulmonary congestion
(See Fig 4).
The most likely cause of severe pulmonary congestion
and a normal heart is:
Non-colorectal procedures had significantly higher rates of re-operation (mainly due to anastomotic leaks), sepsis, pneumonia and pulmonary congestion
On gross examination, pulmonary congestion
and edema were the most common findings.
Total body fluid balance was assessed by two independent observers who recorded the extent of oedema formation on a scale of 0 to 4, tissue turgor on a scale of 0 to -3, and by paying attention to the jugular venous pressure and pulse rate, blood pressure and signs of pulmonary congestion
on the chest radiograph.
Treatment could involve controlling pulmonary congestion
with the use of diuretics, controlling high blood pressure, and regressing increased left ventricular wall thickness with the use of beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme
The American College of Cardiology recommends using diuretics in the setting of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and fluid retention (level of evidence [LOE]: A), and recommends using diuretics in diastolic dysfunction to control pulmonary congestion
and peripheral edema (LOE: C).
8 cm), moderate coronary artery atherosclerosis, marked pulmonary congestion
and pulmonary edema.
An autopsy revealed cutaneous burns on his neck, upper chest, back, and thighs; pulmonary congestion
with alveolar hemorrhage; and moderately severe hepatocellular fatty change.
Chest pain tightness in the chest and haemoptysis are also due to pulmonary congestion
Chest x ray showed enlarged cardiac silhoute with pulmonary congestion