Major Finding: Between 2000 and 2010, the percentage of women aged 18-21 years who reported never having a Pap
test increased from 26.
However, HPV testing also produced more false-positive results than did Pap
We believe we should have legislative power of some kind in areas such as health, the environment, the circulation of goods and suchlike," the PAP
Screening guidelines from several medical organizations, such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Cancer Society, have endorsed concurrent HPV and Pap
testing as a safe alternative to Pap
testing alone for women aged 30 years and older.
The researchers acknowledge a number of study limitations, among them the use of a convenience sample of women in only 18 states, the lack of information about whether women had been offered a Pap
test during the previous year, the facility-based recruitment strategy and the use of self-reported data on Pap
HIV-infected women without AIDS but with a sexually transmitted disease were 40% more likely to have had a Pap
test in the past year (when compared with women without a sexually transmitted disease).
Women are most likely to be infected with HPV in the first three years of sexual activity Yearly Pap
tests done during this time period pick up a lot of abnormal cervical cell changes that would have vanished on their own, without treatment.
Optional testing for women ages 65 to 70 with at least three normal Pap
tests and no abnormal Pap
tests in the past ten years.
On the other hand, women who do not have HPV and whose Pap
smears are normal have been shown to have virtually no risk of disease-offering extra peace of mind.
More frequent Pap
tests may be indicated if these risk factors are present.
She added that if the postal rates continue to rise (they have risen 27 per cent since 1999) and the PAP
subsidies continue to fail in the coming years, "I don't think that we could maintain the Journal and the diocesan papers at the current set up.
The 2005 estimated market size for Pap
smears is $1 billion for 2005 (See Note).