Management

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Management

The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.

Management

1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.

management

The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
The results of this survey illustrate that most almond growers, and the large majority of acreage, currently employ theorized best-fertilization practices, and the industry would value new information about a wide breadth of topics relating to nutrition management.
Nutrition management of type 2 diabetes by primary care physicians: reported use and barriers.
Renal Ventures' RV CARE program demonstrates that through proactive education, intensive monitoring, nutrition management, and cardiac assessment and treatment, the risks associated with kidney dialysis can be dramatically improved.
Smallholder livestock commercialization addressing livestock development, with a focus on raising goats and buffalo, through breed and productivity improvement, nutrition management, veterinary services, farmer training and market linkages
If you are to have an effective nutrition management program, you will have to address all of these needs.
Nadim Al Fuqaha, Managing Director, Global Links, said: "Organic and natural food products are not a fad anymore; they are a lifestyle choice that is of considerable relevance in nutrition management.
Improved nutrition management has already increased output at Hallbankgate, and Ian believes there is future room for improvement.
Chief Medical Officer, Pathway Genomics, whose team developed the test says, "The results of this preliminary study corroborate with the results we're seeing in other areas of weight loss and personal nutrition management.
Collaboration Efforts : This project will be a joint project between HL7 and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association) and our international counterparts, where Academy representatives along with food and nutrition management software vendors will provide
Another component of PHI's network is with Nutrition Management Services Company (NMSC), a food services management company based in Kimberton, PA.
is the only technology and global healthcare informatics solutions provider focused exclusively on healthcare food and nutrition management, providing clients with state-of-the-art software for food service, nutrition management, diet office, and more.
His industry experience includes time as an operations analyst for Food & Beverage Investigations, a regional operations manager at SODEXO USA and vice president and general manager of North American operations for Nutrition Management Services.

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