Whether actual cost savings end up above or below our baseline estimate hinges in large part on whether manufacturers continue to have a business case to invest in developing and marketing biosimilars," the authors noted, citing a number of areas, including intellectual property litigation, payment, price competition, nonprice competition
from reference biologic manufacturers, naming convention, and interchangeability.
Deregulation is argued to occur due to strong nonprice competition
or technological innovations outpacing the regulatory environment.
Third, the favored dealer may not change its output price, but use the cost savings to increase nonprice competition
Stucke & Grunes, supra note 242, at 1411-12 ("The DOJ's radio merger consent decrees never address nonprice competition
2010), banks are actively engaged in fierce nonprice competition
Linkline illustrates this position: (311) the Court rejected the notion of harm to competition through the creation of entry barriers or the impairment of nonprice competition
or innovation in the downstream market.
Marketing contracts are a form of nonprice competition
for hogs that encourage production facility investment near packing facilities by assuring lenders that hog producers have access guaranteed to packer "shackle-space".
More recent observations point to a resurgence of nonprice competition
among hospitals, or what some have characterized as the "new medical arms race," triggered in part by the entry of new organizational forms for delivering patient care, including physician-owned specialty hospitals (Devers, Brewster, and Casalino 2003).
1979, Rate Regulation and Nonprice Competition
in the Property and Liability Insurance Industry, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 46: 683-696.
Recent studies on the effects of competition are also mixed, with some evidence of increasing price competition among hospitals (Gift, Arnould, and DeBrock 2002) and other evidence of increased emphasis on nonprice competition
(Devers, Brewster, and Casalino 2003).
However, they can engage in nonprice competition
, for example, by improving the quality of their notes or services associated with them, and such nonprice competition
is also capable of maximizing consumers' surplus (White and Boudreaux 1998).
For instance, Frech and Samprone  find that rate regulation in property-liability insurance leads to nonprice competition