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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
24) Such claims might allow us to say that other-regarding normative judgments might be desires even if they are motivationally inert.
These two sets of findings, showing that 10 motivationally distinct value types are recognized across cultures, provide substantial support for both the content and structure postulates of the theory.
Towards a motivationally intelligence pedagogy: how should an intelligent tutor respond to the unmotivated or the demotivated?
Telephone versus print delivery of an individualized motivationally tailored physical activity intervention: Project STRIDE.
Regarding the relationship between perceived class climates and motivation, Vallerand, Deci, and Ryan (1985) considered that performance-oriented climates are motivationally negative, because they tend to damage subject's self-determination, whereas mastery-oriented environments have been linked to higher levels of intrinsic motivation (Papaioannou, Marsh, & Theodorakis, 2004).
Twice a year, she brings in a woman with an extraordinary story to speak motivationally to the "Circle of Women" gathering at her condominium in Halifax.
It will be 'impossible' for them to do what they regard as immoral simply because it is 'psychologically or motivationally out of the question' and not because they are literally determined to act in a certain way (p.
Darling & Steinberg, 1993; Smith, Smoll, & Cumming, 2007; Vazou, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2006), most studies in this area have focused on the motivationally salient messages and behaviors communicated by coaches (e.
The most important thing is to finish second in the constructors' championship, not only financially but also motivationally to see that we have the second best car," the German said.
The reason for this is that the psychological aspects of well-being, the kinds of things subjective well-being research typically measures, tend to be cognitively and motivationally necessary for agency.
Motivationally, mobilizers and the emerging generation speak different languages.
Motivationally, it proves more appealing to students than the future-oriented view; they engage in the work of projects not only because doing so might help them in college but also because they are genuinely interested in what they can produce at their best.