The biozone corresponds to the main part of the Jogeva Beds (except the lowermost
layers) in the Poltsamaa core and to the lower two-thirds of the Ikla Member in the Ikla core.
However, it cannot be excluded that the lowermost
sample from this interval (sample 31.
In core sections on northwestern Saaremaa (Muratsi, Undva, Viki, and Eikla) the Rumba Formation lies on the Jarva-Jaani Beds of the Nurmekund Formation which forms the lowermost
part of the Raikkula Stage corresponding to the Rhuddanian (H.
In the Avalanche Lake sections from the Mackenzie Mountains, the lowermost
Only the Viita and lowermost
Kuusnomme beds contain the tabulates Parastriatopora cf.
2011) state that these peak values of conodont diversity were reached somewhat earlier, in the lowermost
samples have mixed fauna with redeposited conodonts from the underlying Paltodus deltifer Zone.
Sample 408-414 (locality A1562) is a composite one and includes seven small pieces of rock, all collected from a bryozoan mound but from different levels (distance between the lowermost
and the uppermost sample is 5.
A gap in the lowermost
Ludlow of Estonia has been observed earlier, based on the chitinozoan succession (missing biozones) (Nestor 1982).
This operation is expected to open over 600 feet of unrestricted flow from the existing interval, as well as reenter the formerly unavailable, lowermost
promising interval at the base of the Monterey Shale.
Hirnantian brachiopods appear in the lowermost
Porkuni Stage, in or above the Spinachitina taugourdeaui chitinozoan Biozone.
The most reasonable explanation, concluded Garnero and Helmberger, was that certain regions of the lowermost
mantle had a veneer of rock where seismic waves practically crawled along.