The augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test was used to determine the degree of integration for each of the

logarithms of the real bilateral exchange rates.

i] Expressed in Natural

Logarithm Serial number Original

Logarithm [[lambda].

The use of

logarithms allowed square roots to be found fairly efficiently, provided one had a set of tables handy, and was a great deal easier than the division method.

Sign of the estimated coefficient of the

logarithm of the price of oil is negative which reflects the negative impact of rising oil prices on the stock index.

However,

logarithm of the total assets squared [LAGA.

The best fitted production function (Surmounting

logarithm production function) resulted negative relationship between gross firm output and capital.

On average, change of the

logarithm in Google hits is 0.

Logarithms can then be used to 'undo' their respective exponential functions as in Figure 8.

For

logarithms, the characteristic reflects the power of 10 (ie, the exponent), and is, therefore, not considered when determining the number of significant digits.

X) and call it the combinatorial

logarithm (iii), by analogy with the fact that, in analysis, the power series of log(1 + X) is the substitutional inverse of that of exp(X) - 1.

To test the above conjecture, the

logarithm of number of universities per capita (u) is regressed on the centered

logarithm of per-capita GNI (y), institutional form indicator ([theta]) and a polynomial function of population, f(N), where N represents the centered

logarithm of population.

The researchers determined each company's productivity by taking a

logarithm of its value added (revenue minus costs), divided by the number of employees, which produced the average value of production per employee.