The augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test was used to determine the degree of integration for each of the logarithms
of the real bilateral exchange rates.
i] Expressed in Natural Logarithm
Serial number Original Logarithm
The use of logarithms
allowed square roots to be found fairly efficiently, provided one had a set of tables handy, and was a great deal easier than the division method.
Sign of the estimated coefficient of the logarithm
of the price of oil is negative which reflects the negative impact of rising oil prices on the stock index.
of the total assets squared [LAGA.
The best fitted production function (Surmounting logarithm
production function) resulted negative relationship between gross firm output and capital.
On average, change of the logarithm
in Google hits is 0.
can then be used to 'undo' their respective exponential functions as in Figure 8.
, the characteristic reflects the power of 10 (ie, the exponent), and is, therefore, not considered when determining the number of significant digits.
X) and call it the combinatorial logarithm
(iii), by analogy with the fact that, in analysis, the power series of log(1 + X) is the substitutional inverse of that of exp(X) - 1.
To test the above conjecture, the logarithm
of number of universities per capita (u) is regressed on the centered logarithm
of per-capita GNI (y), institutional form indicator ([theta]) and a polynomial function of population, f(N), where N represents the centered logarithm
The researchers determined each company's productivity by taking a logarithm
of its value added (revenue minus costs), divided by the number of employees, which produced the average value of production per employee.