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The stocks with the highest trading volume over a given period of time. Leadership may give an indication of future market movements. That is, a large amount of interest in certain stocks may mean that the market will continue to be interested in them. Leadership may be either good or bad for the market. For example, poor leadership may result from too much speculation, while solid leadership comes from sustainable investing practices. It is also called market leadership.


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Fig. 49 Leadership. Blake and Mouton's managerial grid.


the process of influencing others to achieve certain goals. Effective leadership is often seen as the outcome of leadership qualities (traits) which some people have and some do not. In this conception, leadership is often seen as an autocratic activity, and leadership qualities are thought to include strength of personality, charisma, etc. Unfortunately, research into associated traits has been unable to prove conclusively a positive relationship between aspects of personality and effective management.

Academic work on leadership then shifted its attention away from what leaders are to what managers actually do in leadership roles. Two basic approaches to leadership were identified and have formed the core of theories of leadership and MANAGEMENT STYLE ever since. These are concern for production, as exemplified by SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT, and concern for people, as found in HUMAN RELATIONS philosophy. In the former, managers concentrate on getting the job done and their leadership style is essentially directive. In the latter, managers devote their efforts to ensuring that their subordinates are satisfied in their jobs, on the basis that a contented worker is an effective one. These twin dimensions are combined together in the Managerial Grid, devised by Americans Robert Blake (1918 -) and Jane Mouton (1930 -), as shown in Fig. 49. In their view the most effective form of management is Team Management, where leaders show a marked concern for people and for getting the job done.

However, research findings do not fully support this contention, leading some analysts to suggest that the situation in which leadership occurs needs to be considered too. American writer Fred Fiedler (1922-) has suggested that the extent to which tasks are structured and the nature of the leader -subordinate relationship (including the power resources of the leader) influence the effectiveness of leadership styles. A task-oriented approach is most effective where tasks are either highly structured or fairly unstructured and where the leader-subordinate relationship is very good or very poor. It is in the middling positions that a people-oriented style is most effective. Fiedler believed that managers find it difficult to change their styles and therefore advocated that managers should attempt to modify the situation to enhance effectiveness. Other writers, however, have argued, in what has come to be known as ‘situational management’, that leaders should adapt their style to the demands of the situation. It has been suggested that a critical factor is the job ‘maturity’ of subordinates, i.e. their capacity to direct their own job performance. At low levels of maturity a task-orientation is most appropriate to provide direction. As maturity increases leaders should adopt a people-orientation to provide support whilst reducing the amount of task direction. As individuals reach full maturity the manager can reduce both task-and people-orientation and allow individuals to perform the job as they see fit. In a sense, at this point successful leadership is the absence of overt leadership.

References in periodicals archive ?
Often universities approach work with school districts with a sense of noblesse oblige, and school districts enter partnerships with cynicism about the "ivory tower" approach to leadership.
In effect, students perpetuated a parallel structure between their work worlds and their college classes, rather than seeking to integrate them and take advantage of the overlaps between their school leadership roles and a performance-based program in educational leadership.
This is an extremely important lesson for university faculty in educational leadership at a time when programs are trying to make the shift from a traditional course-based, seat-time format to one that is more authentic, embedded, and performance-based.
Developing teacher leaders: How teacher leadership enhances school success.
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Sliding the Doors: Locking and Unlocking Possibilities for Teacher Leadership.
In this study, the sample size of professors was small and the researchers did not translate transformational leadership behaviors into outcomes.
In this research, the interaction of leader and follower gender was assessed to determine differences in perceptions of leadership styles.
High school leadership environments as a whole may be seen as more transactional in nature than those of many colleges.
Leadership and gender in public relations: Perceived effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership styles.
The development of a new transformational leadership questionnaire.
Context and leadership: An examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.

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