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Import Certificate

A proposed system to lower the U.S. trade deficit. Under the system, exporters would be issued import certificates allowing them to import up to the total value they export. Exporters may then sell these certificates to importers, who need them to conduct their business. The concept would maximize the value of imports, allowing it to be no greater than the value of exports. While this is not technically a tariff, it has much the same effect. Import certificates were proposed by Warren Buffett in 2003.

Information Coefficient

A measure of the correlation between expected and actual returns. The IC is used internally within a firm to judge the performance of individual financial forecasters. The IC is measured on a scale between 0 to 1, with 1 indicating no difference between expected and actual returns. An analyst with a consistently high IC on his/her predictions will likely receive promotions and bonuses, while one with low information coefficients will likely lose his/her job.

Interest Cost (IC)

A comprehensive and time-adjusted measure of loan cost to the borrower.

IC on a Mortgage: IC is what economists call an “internal rate or return.” It takes account of all payments made by the borrower over the life of the loan relative to the cash received up front. On a mortgage, the cash received up front is the loan amount less all upfront fees paid by the borrower. On an ARM, IC captures the effect of interest rate changes on the monthly payment and the balance, but future rate changes must be assumed.

Formula: IC is (i) in the formula below:

L - F = P1 + P2/(1 + i)2 +… (Pn + Bn)/(1 + i)n

L = Loan amount

F = Points and all other upfront fees paid by the borrower P = Monthly payment

n = Month when the balance is prepaid in full

Bn = Balance in month n

IC Versus APR: IC differs from APR in the following ways: IC is measured over any time horizon, whereas APR assumes that all loans run to term. IC may be measured after taxes whereas APR is always measured before taxes. On an ARM, IC can be calculated on any interest rate scenario whereas APR always uses a no-change scenario.

References in periodicals archive ?
Data Source: Randomized trial conducted at 11 centers in the United States and Canada in 81 women with interstitial cystitis.
Some scientists receive funds from the Federal Government to help support their research, and some receive support from other sources such as their employing institution, drug companies, and the Interstitial Cystitis Association.
Identify and understand important and diverse types of therapeutics under development for Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome).
Interstitial cystitis isn't just a physical condition C it causes emotional stress for many women.
Abnormal expression of differentiation related proteins and proteoglycan core proteins in the urothelium of patients with interstitial cystitis.
In a trial reported earlier this year, 33 (94%) of 35 interstitial cystitis patients treated with a variation of the solution containing 2% lidocaine had 50% or greater symptom improvement.
Expanded interest and research over the past 20 years has resulted in much greater awareness of interstitial cystitis, as well as more confidence and assurance in the diagnosis and better therapies," says Dr.
As a cause of chronic pelvic pain in women, interstitial cystitis (IC) presents a major clinical conundrum.
Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome) Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2013 Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome) Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2013
Summary of the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases workshop on interstitial cystitis.
Interstitial cystitis affects about 700,000 people in the United States, but that number may be a vast underestimate, depending on how the condition is defined.
LAS VEGAS -- More than half of the 25 million Americans who suffer from overactive bladder symptoms may have interstitial cystitis, Dr.

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