First, choices in reproduction have an instrumental value
that makes the future more likely to be enjoyable for the person who has made the choice.
If we take a look at classification of values, we will notice that positive terminal values provide a motivation to employees to reach a socially acceptable high status while positive instrumental values
will equip him or her with tools to reach that status.
Terminal values explicitly lead to values-based policy-making by explaining the value systems, and linking it with the instrumental values
and a criterion system.
On the contrary, instrumental values
are a means; they are at the service of intrinsic values (money, richness, that which is useful, etc.
Although the First Amendment's protection of speech is often based on collectivist and individualist instrumental values
, numerous scholars have recognized that the protection of expressive rights also serves intrinsic values.
The conceptual framework of the study is culled from the Rokeachian concept of values wherein there are two classifications: Terminal values or end-state of existence values, and Instrumental values
or the mode of behavior.
Rokeach's model, from which the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) is derived, is based on two sets of 18 values: terminal values or those end states that a person aspires to, and instrumental values
or desired "modes of conduct".
When they were compared as instrumental values
, both of university students were shown different attitudes at all the items.
Participants were asked to rank order 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values
refer to preferable modes of behavior.
In this study, however, we draw upon the work of Elizur (1991) who identified three types of outcomes that workers usually hold important namely, a) Instrumental values
Ultimate values are not influenced by states of the world, but instrumental values