18) which are the expected instrumental values of an entrepreneur.
There are only three (3) instrumental values where male and female entrepreneurs significantly differ.
Null Hypothesis 6: There are no significant differences among instrumental values held by non-managers in the Baby Boom Generation vs.
Table 2 shows statistically significant generational differences in instrumental values between managers and non-managers for 11 of 18 instrumental values, allowing us to reject Null Hypothesis 2.
0 10380 Top Instrumental Value
Ranks Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Valid Ambitious 11 18.
224 INSTRUMENTAL VALUES
Females Males Significance Value Honest 1 1 .
Principal components and factor analysis extracted four dimensions of instrumental values
, labeled CIVILITY, SELF-DIRECTION, INTEGRITY, and DRIVE.
Whether something is an intrinsic or instrumental value
depends on the perception of the person doing the valuing.
Dignity was addressed by the participants as a terminal value (a desirable end-state), an instrumental value
(a desirable mode of conduct), and a value underlying all of the different forms of end-of-life decisions.
According to the typology, Effective Crusaders score high on competence instrumental values
and social terminal terminal values.
Subjects are asked to rank the terminal and instrumental values
separately in terms of importance to them (from 1, most important, to 18, least important).
The extent to which return to employment has instrumental value
for the individual is related to the individual's beliefs that work will lead to other preferred outcomes (such as status), and to the possible non-desired outcomes that the individual believes will result from attaining a return to work (such as unpleasant social interaction).