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1. A means of production in which different parts of the supply chain are located in different countries. Fragmentation occurs to reduce costs of production. For example, the least expensive materials may be in India and the cheapest factory workers in China, while the target retail customer is in the United States or Canada. Fragmentation can occur most easily when there is free trade, or at least low tariffs between all the countries on the supply chain. See also: Globalization.

2. A situation in a decentralized market. This often renders investors unaware of the best price available for their trades, resulting in inefficiency in the market. Fragmentation has become less of a problem with the advent of electronic exchanges and other, similar products.


The lack of full interconnection of the various securities markets. Fragmentation can result in customer orders being sent to markets that do not offer the best available price. Critics claim the inefficiencies of fragmentation can be cured with a central order book that includes orders from all markets.
References in periodicals archive ?
While modern RAID controllers do a good job of managing data at the physical disk layer, which certainly helps in the fight against file fragmentation, it falls short in that it does nothing about fragmentation at the logical software layer that Windows sees.
Compared with the primary fragmentation extent of several coals [9], that of Huadian oil shale is not marked, which could be explained by the fact that Huadian oil shale has laminated structure and contains large proportions of ash (51.
Table 2: State of fragmentation after Diskeeper has been run Low Medium High Number of files 101,652 1.
With such levels of fragmentation existing as the norm, valuable hours can be squandered during backups due to the time it takes to read the disk before relaying the entire file to the storage medium.
To put it simply, the fragmentation of the European periphery is the other face of the process of Western European integration.
From 1970 on, growth started to go hand in hand with a process of fragmentation, with the result That today, in the developed democracies, sociology is a heterogeneous centrifugal discipline.
It seems that the constant changes often result in title transition, a suspected source of professional fragmentation.
It's rare to find any size that dominates the debris of fragmentation events, says Hans J.
With the number of bears falling and fragmentation increasing, FWS in 1992 listed the species as threatened.
Hence, it must be split into two packets, known as IP fragmentation.