For verification of the proposed solution, the factor of safety
predicted by the proposed limit analysis was compared with the results obtained by using different computational approaches.
Intentionally designing to a factor of safety
much greater than 1 indirectly admits the fault in the deterministic approach while bypassing more meaningful and less arbitrary alternatives.
In term of deterministic analysis, a slope is likely to fail if the factor of safety
is equal or less than one (FS [less than or equal to] 1).
We can notice from the design that the factor of safety
considered for the design is too large which results in the wastage of the material and also increases its cost.
1) through (7), the time-dependent magnitude of factor of safety
for the two scenarios immediately and long-term after earthquake occurrence is computed and presented in Figure 1.
Choose an appropriate factor of safety
for the tests.
In addition, according to the example slope model, five-group factors of safety with different c and tan f values under the same coefficient of variation are given in Table 5 to further investigate the variation characteristics of the probability of failure with the factor of safety
under different copulas.
No specic value of factor of safety
is recommended as safe, however, for soil having factor of safety
less than 1 are highly susceptible to liquefaction and susceptibility for liquefaction varies inversely with factor of safety
The estimation of the factor of safety
was applied for each design.
The current version of the simplified procedure calculates the factor of safety
FS against liquefaction of a level ground in terms of the cyclic stress ratio CSR (the demand), and the cyclic resistance ratio CRR (the capacity) according to:
For purposes of analysis, Rudakov and Pursell decided that 500 million cycles--a dozen or more years worth of heartbeats--was an infinite life in determining the factor of safety
against fatigue failure.