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Thus, when the technology in a standard is patented, the intellectual property holder can charge royalties up to the difference in implementation costs before vendors will switch--even when the ex ante cost structure of the two technologies was identical.
Para el profesor Ohlin, la tasa de interes depende de la interaccion en el margen entre la oferta de credito nuevo debida al ahorro ex ante y la demanda de credito nuevo proveniente de la inversion ex ante.
First, they find a significant residual gender gap with ex ante but not ex post choices and interpret this as suggesting that the residual gender gaps are different.
One is that net neutrality policy has lost its focus and is now a growing miscellany of ex ante regulations that frequently work against the entrepreneurs and consumers the rules are intended to help.
To account for each of these effects in an economic model, we must allow for an ex ante heterogenous population of individuals, each of whom face idiosyncratic risk.
En fait, notre proposition en faveur d'une division entre les versions ex ante et ex post de la regle est renforcee par cette comparaison.
Nevertheless, the Discussion Draft essentially condones the use of hindsight by allowing tax authorities to use ex post evidence and presume that an intangible is mispriced if there is a significant difference between the ex post "correct" price (the "actual financial outcomes" in the Drafts phrasing) (3) and the ex ante price unless the taxpayer meets the criteria listed in paragraph 14.
In its 2013 Report to Congress on the Benefits and Costs of Federal Regulations, the Office of Management and Budget states that such retrospective analysis can serve as an important corrective mechanism to the flaws of ex ante analyses.
This ex ante / ex post dichotomy is the guiding framework in attempts to understand contract design and interpretation.
It will then explore some of the problems with this current regime before proposing a new regime of ex ante review and detailing its implementation and procedure.
The main changes concern pay-out arrangements (time limit of 20 working days at present reduced to seven working days by 2024) and the introduction of ex ante financing arrangements with a minimum target level for ex ante funds of 0.