ER

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Related to erbium: Erbium doped fiber amplifier

ER

The two-character ISO 3166 country code for ERITREA.

ER

1. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the State of Eritrea. This is the code used in international transactions to and from Eritrean bank accounts.

2. ISO 3166-2 geocode for Eritrea. This is used as an international standard for shipping to Eritrea. Each Eritrean province has its own code with the prefix "ER." For example, the code for the Province of Debub is ISO 3166-2:ER-DU.

Qualifying Widow(er)

The filing status available to a qualified taxpayer for two tax years following the year of the spouse's death. To qualify, the surviving spouse must have been entitled to file a joint return for the year of death, remain unmarried at the end of the current tax year, and pay over half the cost of maintaining his or her home, which was the principal residence the entire tax year of his or her dependent child (other than a foster child).
References in periodicals archive ?
10 EDFA internal erbium density state graphs were created.
At the fibre length of 15 m signal amplification achieves its maximum and exited erbium ion count is approaching base state erbium count--at this point EDFA doesn't amplify the signal.
11, (c)) starting from 15 meters and till amplifier's end, erbium inversion became lower than 50%--signal absorption takes place.
Erbium materials can also be used to increase the energy-conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells.
Erbium materials can remedy the situation by converting two or more photons carrying small amounts of energy into one photon that is carrying a larger amount of energy.
Erbium materials also help absorb ultraviolet light from the sun and convert it into photons carrying small amounts of energy, which can then be more efficiently converted into electricity by silicon cells.
The mechanism of the amplification of the 1530-nm erbium emission is described in Ref.
Although the 1530-nm luminescence bands that correspond to the erbium transition [.
The erbium-doped samples showed an evident trend in improving their luminescence properties important for their active optical function (as widening of the FWHM and increasing the 1530 nm emission) with increasing concentrations of erbium in the samples.
Dermatologist and medical director of Lasercare Clinics Dr John Cotterill said the Erbium treatment was gentle and effective, safer - and less painful.
Dr Cotterill was enthusiastic about the advantages of the Erbium Yag laser, but added: "It's important to minimise exposure to ultraviolet light after the treatment as it's very ageing to be a sun worshipper.