Overall survival as an end point
requires a larger study population and a longer assessment period, whereas the use of NT-proBNP as a surrogate end point
, with survival as a follow-up, may require less than half the time," commented Giampaolo Merlini, MD, of the Amyloidosis Research and Treatment Center at the University of Pavia and IRCCS Policlinico San Mateo in Italy.
Although the development of in vitro methods is occurring more systematically than ever before, it continues to be a slow and uncertain procedure to model the complex biological processes that underlie toxicological assessments for end points
such as subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity.
Given the lack of time and funding needed to study biomarkers extensively, there has been a strong push among biopharmaceutical industry players to explore innovative study designs that optimize the use of biomarkers as surrogate end points
The extension of efforts like these to incorporate toxicological and biological end points
critically defines and distinguishes toxicogenomic databases, and several key initiatives will be discussed here.
IP end points
are likely to gain visibility in the small and medium enterprise (SME) customer segment in the immediate future.
Proposed end points
include assessment of gamete quality, fecundity, gross pathology of gonads, measurement of relative gonad weight (gonadal somatic index), and measurement of vitellogenin levels (a widely used bio-marker of estrogen exposure in fish) (8,27).
Mechanism of action is defined as the detailed molecular description of the events involved in the induction of cancer or other health end points
Rambus digital controllers are available as root complex, switch port, end point
and hybrid (end point
/root complex) device types.
Codian products are end point
agnostic and deliver each conference participant the best possible audio and video quality; this makes them ideal for Chinese organizations that require frequent face-to-face communication across the country or have diverse end point
equipment or connection speeds.
Shenoy and his colleagues set out to shorten the process by focusing on the end point
rather than processing every step along the way.
Squeezing the latency from Ethernet has meant efforts by both the standards bodies and by vendors that have attacked both the network end points
and the interconnect switch.
For every 10-mm Hg increase in ambulatory systolic blood pressure at baseline, the relative risk for these three end points
combined (cardiovascular death, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) increased by 35%.