A simpler answer to the determinist
hypothesis lies in the role of the conscious observer, whose free choice of the means of observation turns what is merely probable into a physical state that is definite and measurable.
reply constitutes a perfectly intelligible answer to the question: do we or do we not enjoy liberty in the sense of (L2)?
This suggests that the concepts of sex and gender are far more complicated than what biological determinist
school can purely explain.
As far as the physical, inanimate world is concerned, the determinist
position has been seriously challenged by the discovery of indeterminacy at the level of subatomic particles.
Ironically, however, some fatalists at least entertain the possibility that agents might actually be able to make (unfortunately futile) different choices and efforts to alter what is fated, whereas hard determinists
deny that agents are even able to engage in any deliberations, or make any choices or efforts, other than those that are pre-determined.
It is common practice for determinists
, when providing examples of human choices, to use these types of examples.
Although Kalupahana seems to implicitly accept soft determinism, because he is inconsistent about freedom from causation, supernormal causal operations, psychic powers, and so forth, he is difficult to pin down as a (soft) determinist
Doing so is a virtue in Foot's sense and does not re quire accepting the philosophical arguments of Santideva or other hard determinists
There is an intuitive sense of desert in the idea that there is such a thing as "the innocent" (who, Goodman claims, are "in no need of reform," as opposed to "the guilty," who presumably are), and this notion makes sense, but is a bit more difficult for hard determinists
to accommodate than it is for soft determinists
Obviously, soft and hard determinists
agree that de terminism is true.
disagree over which conditions constitute responsible agency, but likely accept a "generic soft determinist
A scientific behaviorist and philosophical determinist