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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Various events would be organized to increase the understanding of issues around cultural diversity and development among non-governmental organizations and the public.
Human societies are bonded together through cultural values - a source of social connectivity, which contribute to social changes and promote social justice.
Legal System for Protection of Cultural Properties (1)
Boylston: Worcester County Horticultural Society, $22,100; Boylston Cultural Council, $4,250
He said many Yemeni journalists who write about cultural issues are not qualified.
The course included a number of themes to familiarise participants with the concept of cultural institutions management and providing them with the knowledge and skills relevant to the concept of creativity in the cultural work, as well as time management and its role in the cultural institutions, in addition to the role of media means in the cultural field and developing skills of the participants in the field of cultural statistics.
The course aimed at enhancing the cultural unity amongst the AGCC countries and supporting their political, cultural, social, economic, media and educational march through activating the role of the civil community institutions, particularly the cultural institutions to serve the common goals of the AGCC cultural strategy, in addition to promoting the AGCC cultural forms of exchange as it is an element of fraternity within the one region, as well as an element of convergence with other cultures, in addition to enhancing the cultural role of woman and child cultural programmes.
In order to boost cultural action in the regions, an action program was set up based on the conclusion of partnership contracts between the cultural institutions, association and all the components of the civil society, to vitalize the cultural movement on the regional and local level and establish projects of artistic creation inspired from the specificities of each region.
But the merits of specific conservative pleadings aside, is there anything illiberal about an argument for the cultural stigmatization of, say, casual sex?
The finances started to arrive, but the VCC couldn't come to an agreement with the city's Department of Cultural Affairs, which had been tasked with renewing its three-year contract for another year after it had expired June 30.
Although the benefits of collaborative learning are well documented in literature (such as Johnson & Johnson, 1999; Caropreso & Haggerty, 2000), the interplay between cultural orientations and group process in the context of college education has not been examined, while the impact of cultural orientations on group decision making, leadership, conflict resolution, and employee relations is well documented in management literature.