Type II, infibulation: This includes all degrees of excision or damage beyond clitoridectomy
that includes other part/parts/or all of the external genitalia, followed by suturing or not.
nor its consequences resemble a clitoridectomy
or other types of FGM.
It is clear under our past precedent that any of the methods used to conduct female genital mutilation, including clitoridectomy
, excision or infibulations, would satisfy the requirements for past persecution.
The map of Africa showing the extent of the practice of FGM (Female genital mutilation) printed on the page preceding her own text, distinguishes clearly between the zones of Africa where clitoridectomy
is commonly practiced and the more limited areas of infibulations, by using different shades of grey.
In Kikuyuland, Missionaries projected to eradicate clitoridectomy
at the turn of the 1930s.
81) The four forms of genital cutting usually mentioned are: (1) clitoridectomy
(also known as "sunna"), whereby the clitoral prepuce is cut and all or part of the clitoris is removed; (2) excision, whereby the clitoris and all or parts of the inner labia are removed; (3) infibulation (also known as "pharaonic mutilation"), whereby the clitoris and most of the labia are removed and what remains is stitched so as to leave a small opening for urine; and (4) pricking the clitoris and/or labia, sometimes accompanied by stretching of the clitoris and/or labia (see Angela Wasunna, "Towards Redirecting the Female Circumcision Debate: Legal, Ethical and Cultural Considerations" (2000) 5 McGill J.
El-Saadawi's indictment of clitoridectomy
is glaring in Woman at Point Zero (1983; Imra'a 'ind Nuqtat al-Safr, 1975) in which the main character, Firdaus, laments the loss of her ability to experience sexual pleasure later in life as a result of the forceful excision of her clitoris when she was young.
Focusing on cultural and institutional practices of clitoridectomy
, bridewealth, marriage, maternity, and education, Tabitha Kanogo addresses the way in which colonial and mission conceptions of a woman's identity and ethnicity contrasted with those of a woman's own and her communities' resistance to change.
In a game of free association, the words "women" and "the Middle East" (or "Muslim world," if you prefer) often evoke practices like honor crimes and rape, clitoridectomy
, nonconsensual marriage and systemic illiteracy, which are perceived as more or less commonplace, if not socially sanctioned.
In Cameroon, all forms of FGM are practised, the prevalent types being Clitoridectomy
The most radical treatment was, of course, the clitoridectomy
, a surgical procedure that we now know was undertaken with scandalous frequency by some Victorian surgeons (Showalter, pp.
, abstracted from the social, cultural and political conditions in which it was taking place, became a sort of concretised symbol of all that was wrong with any 'culturalist' notion of meaning or right.