However, there are no reports of interspecific cartwheeling involving these species in South America.
A cartwheeling flight is a combination of behaviors that involve the aerial locking of the talons of two raptors, known as "talon-grappling" or "talon-locking" followed by a downward mutual rotation around a central axis similar to a cartwheel (Simmons and Mendelsohn 1993, Farquhar et al.
The talon contact in flight and cartwheeling between two raptors has generally been reported intraspecifically and interpreted as aggression, courtship, play, and aerial prey transfer (e.
In particular, long-term behavioral and breeding studies from Chile have not reported cartwheeling between interacting raptors (Jimenez and Jaksic 1989, 1991, 1993; RivasFuenzalida et al.
Records of cartwheeling mostly came from first-hand and non-published observations obtained by the authors while conducting raptor and non-raptor research in south-central Chile.
It is likely that this high abundance resulted in the frequent recording of the cartwheeling behavior that we detected.