Management

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Management

The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.

Management

1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.

management

The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Digital removal of faeces in the bowel management of patients with spinal cord injury: A review.
Behavioral strategies include shifting weight frequently, optimizing seating and bladder and bowel management, and treating spasticity.
Effectiveness of bran supplement on the bowel management of elderly rehabilitation patients.
The following day, Maria and I ran an education session on bladder and bowel management, pressure sore prevention and autonomic dysreflexia to around 50 nursing staff as well as the director of nursing.
Conversely, wide variations in compliance were evident in several aspects of care: assessment of nutritional goals, pain and sedation, care of ventilated patients (particularly head of bed elevation and weaning practices), as well as pressure area and bowel management practices.
Another chart compares the different medications and enemas used for bowel management.
Learning bowel management programs can help develop more predictable schedules for bowel movements.
Increasing stool volumes with regular oral fibre supplementation, together with oral laxatives such as senna preparations given the night before combined with either manual removal, a mini-enema or in well-trained/ experienced patients a colonic lavage (such as Coloplast) are key ingredients of an effective flaccid bowel management programme.
For example, the chapter on the initial rehabilitation medicine consultation includes a statement of the purpose of the chapter, elements of a consultation, bladder management, bowel management, pressure ulcers, contractures, autonomic dysfunction, upper motor neuron syndrome and spasticity, DVT prophylaxis, pulmonary issues, psychological adaptation, pain, comorbid conditions, disposition and discharge planning, long-term issues, and ends with a checklist of important report elements.
For SCI patients who use a colostomy as an alternative to bowel management, studies have defined the indications for such an intervention.
The two portfolios include seven patents and one patent application, as well as comprehensive ostomy and bowel management research data and cutting-edge methodology.