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According to our knowledge there are only nine in vitro orthodontic studies comparing bonding with and without use of intermediate resin layer and they too generate variable results regarding satisfactory bonding without use of intermediate bonding resin layer.
Results of our study showed that the mean SBS for Group A (brackets bonded with flowable composite using intermediate bonding resin on etched enamel) and Group B (brackets bonded with flowable composite without using intermediate bonding resin on etched enamel) were 12.
The SBS showed by both groups is well above the SBS required for clinically acceptable bonding.
This result is in accordance with Agha and Tecco et al16, Agha19 in his study compared traditional orthodontic composite with two flowable composites, one used with intermediate bonding resin and one without intermediate bonding resin.
Our result was not in agreement with Uysal and colleagues which in their study while comparing traditional orthodontic composite with flowable composite (with and without intermediate bonding resin) showed that fllowable composites with and without intermedate bonding resin (7.