To do this, they customized the DNA that encoded for the protein by adding the synthetic base pair
at specific locations.
Also removed was what is popularly termed junk DNA, including base pairs
known not to encode for any particular proteins, and "jumping gene" segments known to randomly move around and introduce mutations.
Direct high-throughput 454 Sequencing of a DNA extract from a Neandertal fossil has thus far yielded a significant portion of the Neandertal genome, including over one million base pairs
of hominoid nuclear DNA sequences, giving us the confidence to commence with the sequencing of the entire Neandertal genome," explained Svante Paabo, Ph.
Due to technical limitations, they were able to cover only 97% of the whole sequence and left 11 gaps, none of which exceeded 150,000 base pairs
in size, according to the Nature article.
There are so many millions of base pairs
in each person's DNA that everyone has a different sequence.
European researchers have sequenced 12 million base pairs
that contain the entire 6,000 gene pattern of baker's yeast.
Since its inception in 1999, Blue Heron Bio has synthesized tens of millions of base pairs
of DNA for thousands of life science research organizations including the top pharmaceutical and life science companies.
Comprising about 1,500 chemical base pairs
linked together, the man-made piece of telomerator code can be inserted as a single unit at any position on circular DNA and almost anywhere among a chromosome's other genes, whose base pairs
can number into the hundreds of thousands.
The finished chromosome measures 272,871 base pairs
long--much shorter than the original yeast chromosome's 316,617 base pairs
result from the binding of double strands of nucleic acid.
Yet they link together to form 3 billion base pairs
in one DNA
Since its inception in 1999, Blue Heron Bio has synthesized over ten million base pairs
of DNA for hundreds of life science research organizations including 19 of the 20 top life science companies.