a state of normlessness (i.e. a sense of confusion and loss about values and personal objectives) which French sociologist Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) believed could arise from the disruption of community caused by growing specialization in the division of labour. It could be expressed in job dissatisfaction and ‘deviant’ behaviour at work. The solution was to create a sense of community appropriate to the new division of labour. See ALIENATION, HUMAN RELATIONS, JOB SATISFACTION.