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Historically,property owners owned to the center of the earth and to the top of the heavens, which included the right to all the air above the property and the right to exclude trespassers from that air. Until the invention of aircraft, the matter typically arose only in disputes over the right to remove tree limbs extending over one's property. Today, aircraft constantly trespass into property owner's air space and violate their air rights.As an accommodation to modern technology, courts allow reasonable trespasses to air rights. Airports and governments frequently purchase air rights adjacent to an airport,called avigation easements,to provide glide paths for aircraft.(Because of the scarcity of prime real estate near city centers, many local governments are investigating and implementing plans to lease air rights above transit hubs to developers,for building hotels and other such projects.)