The origin of this structure was the postwar reforms that began in 1945 when the classes of landlords and zaibatsu
capitalists were dismantled.
The victorious occupying power, the United States, had been stung by Pearl Harbor, four bloody years of total warfare, and a war that it came close to losing, so that initially it trusted the Japanese military and the zaibatsu
much less than it did unionists and radical politicians.
Ambassador to Japan, to the State Department stated that everyone in Japan knew about MacArthur's plan to dissolve the Japanese military, destroy the zaibatsu
, sponsor a Peace Constitution, and instill neutralism during the first phase of the Occupation (1945-47).
There certainly are differences from the American example or even from the Japanese zaibatsu
The newly formed corporate groups were in fact similar to the prewar Zaibatsu
Morck and Nakamura note that Japan's corporate sector began as zaibatsu
family pyramids, was subjected to Soviet-style central planning, was reorganized into widely held firms, and finally organized itself into keiretsu corporate groups.
the self-proclaimed creator of "the first true Internet Zaibatsu
-- a community of companies who work together to create success through cooperation and collaboration.
While bemoaning their lack of power to catch the really big fish, especially zaibatsu
firms, many police made their living by extorting "exemptions" from black marketeers in return for looking the other way.
We read of zaibatsu
, Japanese for big industrial holding companies, fanshen, Chinese for the transformation of the country, swaraj, Hindi for self-rule, Yishuv, Hebrew for Jewish settlements in Palestine.
has undergone some difficult times following the World War II, but they have transformed into the form of keiretsu during the recovery period.
Keiretsu relationships originated in pre-war zaibatsu
or family-owned conglomerates.
Nominally ruled by the Emperor, Hirohito, who was also technically the head of the armed forces, Japan was governed and directed by a delicate b alance of three forces: the military commanders and army, the officially elected politicians (though with a very limited franchise), and the zaibatsu
, the country's industrial elite.