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the selection of part of a total population of consumers or products whose behaviour or performance can be analysed, in order to make inferences about the behaviour or performance of the total population, without the difficulty and expense of undertaking a complete census of the whole population.

Samples may be chosen randomly, with every consumer or product in the population having an equal chance of being included. Random samples are most commonly used by firms in QUALITY CONTROL where they are used as a basis for selecting products, components or materials for quality testing.

Alternatively, samples may be chosen by dividing up the total population into a number of distinct sub-groups or strata, then selecting a proportionate number of consumers or products from each sub-group since this is quicker and cheaper than random sampling. In MARKETING RESEARCH and opinion polling, quota sampling is usually employed where interviewers select the particular consumers to be interviewed, choosing the numbers of these consumers in proportion to their occurrence in the total population.

Samples may be:

  1. cross-sectional, where sample observations are collected at a particular point in time, for example data on company sales and the incomes of consumers in the current year, embracing a wide range of different income groups, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income;
  2. longitudinal, where sample observations are collected over a number of time periods, for example data on changes in company sales over a number of years and changes in consumer incomes over the same time periods, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income. See STATISTICAL INFERENCES, QUESTIONNAIRE.
References in periodicals archive ?
If you have the needs of converting MPC files or convert to MPC files to MP3 or WAV or any else audio format, why hesitate, download a free copy to have a try right now.
Table 1 Packet Sniffing TAPI/WAV Technology Technology NBX License Requires one 3Com Requires two WAV licenses Cost record and monitor (approximate dealer cost license of $74) for each call (approximate cost recorded and three WAV $376) to record and licenses for each call monitor an monitored; cost increases unlimited number of for every call recorded.
The audio content of video files can also be extracted and saved to the WAV format.
voiplog works by identifying the specific packers of data belonging to each conversation, converting the data into a WAV file and recording/storing them on a PC.
0 inches, Multi-touch input method Alert types, Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones Speakerphone Yes, 3.
44 inches, QWER- TY keyboard, SOUND Alert types, Vibration, Polyphonic(64), WAV, MP3 ring-tones, Speakerphone Yes
Display: Type TFT resistive touchscreen, 256K colors Size Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate Sound Alert types, Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones, Speakerphone Yes, 3.
0 UI, Multitouch input method, Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate, Touch-sensitive controls Proximity sensor for auto turn-off, Swype text input, Sound Alert types, Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones, Speakerphone Yes, 3.