to a village meeting of the poor and the village soviet to help identify
in the village soviet of Neuendorf, which was ordered to supply 80,000
property confiscated by the village soviet as payment for the tax or
A commission looked into how much land each member of the village soviet owned before and after the revolution, how much livestock and machinery each of them owned, and whether any of them had ever hired workers.
First, lists of all kulak households in each village soviet and district were to be prepared immediately.
Many of these were harsh, demanding and caustic, and played a role in causing some village soviet chairmen to quit their jobs, as is evident from this directive that Quiring, Wilms and Dyck circulated to the Khortitsa village Soviets in February 1930:
The figures given by Krasnaia pechat' indicate a clear preference for those closest to the peasants and in a position to most oppress them--leaders of the village soviets
and of volost executive committees, and militiamen.
84] In fact, the most repetitive feature of the OGPU reports on collectivization and peasant resistance nationwide is the constant complaint that the village soviets acted as a "brake" on the collectivization process.
Many village soviets were staffed by wealthy peasants with strong patronage networks.
The foot dragging village soviets held their villages together but ironically may have sacrificed them to the state and to the collective farm in the long term.
The newly formed village soviets accordingly contained religious activists, including members of the clergy and those sympathetic to the church, as the village mobilized to assert its religious and legal rights vis-a-vis the Bolshevik state's Decree on the Separation of Church and State, the Constitution, and religious instruction.
Ultimately, the revitalization of the parish and the success of religious activists in using village soviets to uphold religious practices throughout the twenties prompted a more systematized state assault from 1928 onward on peasant traditionalism and autonomy.