Utilitarianism


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Utilitarianism

The philosophy holding that moral actions must provide the greatest good to the greatest number of persons. Utilitarianism emphasizes the consequences of actions when evaluating their morality. For example, a utilitarian may regard a lie to a regulator as moral if it saves 2,000 jobs. Critics of utilitarianism contend that consequences are unknowable and argue that it could be used to defend atrocities. Utilitarians, on the other hand, argue that their philosophy is the best way to improve happiness in the aggregate.
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But to only associate utilitarian with the practical and useful, especially in economic terms, while also stating that the "utilitarian philosopher" limits himself to "immediate practical result" misses the mark of classical utilitarianism.
Feldman notes that Nozick has plenty of other arguments against utilitarianism that never refer to the experience machine.
Retributivism has always been concerned with punishing criminals as simple punishment for their crimes, (37) while utilitarianism has valued the punishment of criminals because of the benefit society may reap as a result of such punishment.
Utilitarianism is a theory based on the notion that any decision or action should be taken in terms of consequences that result in the largest possible balance of pleasure, and the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
Students based their answers to the question whether a peek at notes is equal to cheating on the following theories of ethics: deontology (7 students; 18%), justice (16 students; 41%), teleology (7 students; 18%) and utilitarianism (9 students; 23%).
But utilitarianism inflates bureaucratic management with political purpose, as if the optimal delivery of utilitarian outcomes were society's over-arching, substantive goal.
Utilitarianism in its origins was strongly connected with classical liberalism, a view that stresses individual freedom.
The questions for utilitarianism consisted of responses to questions of "produces maximum utility/produces least utility" and "maximizes benefits while minimizes harm/minimizes benefits while maximizes harm.
Fletcher argues that to accept welfare-maximizing utilitarianism and its penchant for cost/benefit analysis "presupposes that a collective decision-maker can and must determine the community's welfare regardless of the preferences of the affected individuals.
Motive utilitarianism seems to be the normative ethic which Kessel describes, although he gives Card's "intention-based morality" no formal name.
Among his most well-known and significant are A System of Logic (1843); Principles of Political Economy (1848); On Liberty (1859), and Utilitarianism (1863).