Mayers and Smith, 1982); (2) mitigating the assets substitution problem (MacMinn, 1987) and the underinvestment problems (MacMinn, 1987; Mayers and Smith, 1987; Garven and MacMinn, 1993), thereby coordinating a firm's financing and investment activities; and (3) forcing managers to invest in some positive-NPV loss control and safety projects that otherwise may be passed up by managers who focus on shortterm profit targets at the time of insurance underwriting (Mayers and Smith, 1982; Campbell and Kracaw, 1987).
High leverage and growth firms can also use insurance to lower the cost of financial distress, to mitigate the underinvestment problems, and/or to increase debt capacity (Zou and Adams, 2008).
Using data from 1980-2003, we find that callable bonds are often issued by firms with both information asymmetry and underinvestment problems.
Second, the combination of information asymmetry and underinvestment problems also significantly impacts the use of call provisions, while other combinations do not.
This article shows that both over and underinvestment problems may arise when asset reconstitution is risky.
Section Underinvestment with Riskless or Risky Asset Reconstitution distinguishes the underinvestment problems with riskless and with risky asset reconstitution.
These results support the prediction of Myers (1977) that debt maturing after the expiration of the growth option causes underinvestment problems
High Q firms are likely to have valuable investment opportunities, so underinvestment problems
should be concentrated in high Q firms.
The preceding proposition shows that although participating policies mitigate the risk-shifting and underinvestment problems
that arise because of shareholder-policyholder incentive conflict, they exacerbate the shareholder-manager agency conflict by reducing the manager's incentive to exert effort.
As mentioned earlier, in addition to alleviating underinvestment problems
, a firm's hedging decision can be driven by several other considerations.
In Myers (1977), ex post monitoring by lenders and renegotiation of debt terms can reduce debt-related underinvestment problems
Case IIIC calculates a value of q that eliminates both the overinvestment and underinvestment problems