Forward rates are expected to neutralize future exchange rate risk for both parties (sellers and buyers of the same currency) and, to be fair, unbiased estimators
of corresponding future spot rates.
Maximum likelihood estimation is a technique which provides efficient and in most cases unbiased estimators
The method of ordinary least square is widely used for regression analysis because it is much simpler than maximum likelihood parameters which are estimated by ordinary least square (OLS) gives Best Linear Unbiased Estimators
This measure was chosen as it has been suggested to be appropriate for describing both biased and unbiased estimators
(Spanos, 1987) and for comparing between estimators (Jenkins & Watts, 1968).
The formulas for unbiased estimators
using intersections with randomized spatial grids follow from well established general formulas of integral geometry (Baddeley and Vedel-Jensen, 2005).
it] in the two-way random effects specification), uses the quadratic unbiased estimators
(QUE) from Swamy-Arora method.
The dashed-dotted line represents the nonparametric estimator of the constrained HJ-bound that is used in the existing literature whereas the solid and dashed lines represent, in the order, the new maximum likelihood and approximate unbiased estimators
of the constrained HJ-bound that we develop in this paper.
The problems of the existence of the best linear unbiased estimators
(BLUE) and of their equality to the ordinary least squares estimators (OLSE) of the expected value of the observations are treated in a coordinate-free approach using a multivariate growth-curve model.
Of our unbiased estimators
, only FGLS errors have both serial independence and homoskedasticity.
Given the high between haul variability observed in trawl fisheries, the appropriate way to calculate unbiased estimators
for CPUE was evaluated, in order to diminish the variance in q estimators.
An example demonstrates that other linear unbiased estimators
can yield the same variance as the OLS estimator; however, the weights from such formulas are identical to the OLS weights.
A useful relative measure of the efficiency of two unbiased estimators
is the ratio of their variances (equation 6.