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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Biometrics marks the reappearance of objectification within surveillance cultures and the fortification of biological citizenship.
As citizens, we are already tolerating enough of a surveillance culture now.
Keywords: surveillance, surveillance culture, online information, digital citizenship
5% of patients remaining active surveillance culture positive for MRSA at 5 years after the original positive culture.
While the leather-jacket wearing Aussie is quick to observe that some could be offended by his observations on such topics as the nanny state, surveillance culture, and how certain ridiculous rules are enforced, he does recognise the inherent con-flict between free choice and regulations.
MRSA colonization at the time of PICU admission was defined as having a nasal surveillance culture obtained at the time of admission that grew MRSA or any clinical culture that grew MRSA within 3 days of PICU admission (18,19).
The findings, which come from 46 of the 468 local authorities in the UK, have fuelled the debate on the surveillance culture in Britain and whether councils are using Ripa, which has been dubbed "a snoopers' charter", proportionately.
In addition, there's the surveillance culture, a mirror phobia and Dawn Pepper of the Clean & Green Team.
Compared with the standard surveillance culture method for detecting MRSA, which requires at least 48 hours to obtain results, the new assay could facilitate MRSA surveillance programs by enabling earlier implementation of contact precautions, thereby limiting the spread of the organism, the investigators said.
It is all part of the surveillance culture which is making us totally neurotic.
If not, and CISA becomes law, the surveillance culture will be codified into law and gain the appearance of legitimacy.

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