Dominguez said the country's economic fundamentals and strong growth momentum did not happen overnight but was attained through three decades of fiscal discipline, with the economy going through difficult structural adjustment programs
to work down what was once a crushing debt load.
For instance, structural adjustment programs
(SAPs) consisting of loans provided by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund during the 1980s failed to uplift the countries they were supposed to help.
She also exposes the grim logic linking scorched-earth counterinsurgency campaigns, structural adjustment programs
, the rise of Pentecostalism, a growth in advertising and consumer culture, the crisis of Guatemala's prisons, youths' transnational imaginaries, and new authoritarian political actors--the criminals in power who, as one of Levenson's informants points out, do not have tattoos but contribute more to crime and social misery in Guatemala than the mareros ever could.
Structural adjustment programs
were worked out with the Fund which hinged on specific performance indicators that were then known as conditionalities.
Told by a journalist from Ghana that many people there had "a phobia for the IMF" due to the harsh conditions of its past structural adjustment programs
in Africa and South America, Lagarde responded: "Structural adjustment?
He meticulously argued against joining SAP, and maintained that Pakistan's economy was 'doing well' and structural adjustment programs
were supposed to be implemented in countries where there were deep economic crises and recession, something which to him had not yet happened in the case of Pakistan (Zaidi, 2006).
He cited import substitution industrialization and structural adjustment programs
as among factors explaining AfricaaACAOs de-industrialization.
In relation to coffee and PNG, neoliberalization has manifested itself as the deregulation of coffee markets in the 1980s and the Structural Adjustment Programs
, which restructured many coffee-producing states, including PNG, in the early 1990s (p.
The objective of structural adjustment programs
majorly focus towards stabilizing the balance of payments position and thus enable a country to service its foreign debts; but this would not necessarily be the development priority of the country itself.
Previously published in 2007 as With Neither Guns nor Bullets: Recolonization of Africa Today, this work argues that the African content is currently undergoing a process of recolonization that, unlike the first wave of colonization, involves neither guns nor bullets (although the reader might wonder if the author might modify that assessment after observing recent NATO actions in Libya or French actions in Cote D'Ivoire) but instead is primarily a product of the hegemony of neoliberalism and its imposition of debt and accompanying structural adjustment programs
at the hands of the international financial institutions and promotion of NGOs as the new missionaries intended to promote Western notions of "good governance.
There are structural adjustment programs
imposed by the International Monetary Fund Forcing nations to cut back on their social programs to pay the debt service, therefore depriving their own people of essential programs.
The authors conclude that structural adjustment programs
have become an obstacle for the necessary and legitimate expansion of popular participation in Brazil, as evidenced by the conservative nature of government reforms and public policy over the course of the past 20 years.