Told by a journalist from Ghana that many people there had "a phobia for the IMF" due to the harsh conditions of its past structural adjustment programs
in Africa and South America, Lagarde responded: "Structural adjustment?
In relation to coffee and PNG, neoliberalization has manifested itself as the deregulation of coffee markets in the 1980s and the Structural Adjustment Programs
, which restructured many coffee-producing states, including PNG, in the early 1990s (p.
It also involves study of how the Bank's later 'discovery' of poverty became linked with a neoliberal agenda through structural adjustment programs
, 'transforming the Bank from a reflection of pax americana to an institution that was a key force in establishing and reproducing that hegemony' (p.
Previously published in 2007 as With Neither Guns nor Bullets: Recolonization of Africa Today, this work argues that the African content is currently undergoing a process of recolonization that, unlike the first wave of colonization, involves neither guns nor bullets (although the reader might wonder if the author might modify that assessment after observing recent NATO actions in Libya or French actions in Cote D'Ivoire) but instead is primarily a product of the hegemony of neoliberalism and its imposition of debt and accompanying structural adjustment programs
at the hands of the international financial institutions and promotion of NGOs as the new missionaries intended to promote Western notions of "good governance.
There are structural adjustment programs
imposed by the International Monetary Fund Forcing nations to cut back on their social programs to pay the debt service, therefore depriving their own people of essential programs.
The authors conclude that structural adjustment programs
have become an obstacle for the necessary and legitimate expansion of popular participation in Brazil, as evidenced by the conservative nature of government reforms and public policy over the course of the past 20 years.
The central conclusion is that the "uwavi discourse," a pre-modern social thinking about power and other crucial societal relationships, has survived until today, and that the Muedans have succeeded to reproduce and transform this discourse during Portuguese colonialism, the influence of the Catholic evangelization, the power of "scientific socialism"/socialist modernization of FRELIMO (Liberation Front of Mozambique), and the structural adjustment programs
of international institutions like the International Monetary Fund.
The very same health care systems which were so efficiently dismantled and destroyed by structural adjustment programs
now have to be rebuilt.
In country after country in the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America citizens are forced to endure structural adjustment programs
, free market policies and decentralized public sector systems, all in the name of moving these societies towards economic and social prosperity.
include 14 papers that present and analyze macro- level data about national agricultural trends before, during, and after Structural Adjustment Programs
and household-level survey data for comparison of countries.
Rather than a prescription for reducing poverty or eliminating debt, structural adjustment programs
are instead a recipe for increasing the profits of multinational corporations.
A Comparison of Four IMF 'Success Stories' in the Middle East and North Africa," concluding that structural adjustment programs
at best returned selected countries to their pre-crisis level of economic growth and development.