erraticus ticks, previously believed to be the only soft tick
species in this region.
The ticks implicated in the four tick-borne illnesses outlined above belong to the Ixodidae (hard ticks) family as opposed to the soft tick
have a long life-span and can preserve the CCHF virus for long periods, potentially providing a persistent virus reservoir, for infection of the corresponding livestock and hard ticks in a region, and consequently, possible outbreaks of CCHF.
Tick biology--There are three families of ticks recognized in the world today: (1) Ixodidae (hard ticks), (2) Argasidae (soft ticks
), and (3) Nuttalliellidae, a small, curious, little-known group with some characteristics of both hard and soft ticks
Borrelia miyamotoi has been found in a variety of Ixodes ticks and is more closely related to the relapsing fever spirochetes that infect soft ticks
than to the bacteria that cause Lyme disease (2).
irritans fleas, trombiculid and mesostygmata mites, hard and soft ticks
, and booklice (5,6).