SOX10 is a member of the sex-determining region Yrelated HMG-box family of transcription factors.
According to Nonaka et al, (52) SOX10 and S100 show nearly the same specificity and sensitivity for melanoma and neural tumors, such as schwannoma and neurofibroma.
and DOG1 can also stain monomorphic basaloid lesions, such as PA.
SOX10 is highly expressed in desmoplastic melanomas (DMs) and spindle cell melanomas (SCMs).
Among melanocyte markers, SOX10 has shown most promise.
The melanoma tumor cell markers MART-1, S100, SOX10
, and HMB-45 show positivity in melanoma, and negativity in dysgerminoma.
Use of a panel of immunohistochemical markers in the setting of atypical dermal spindle cell tumors is required to prevent misdiagnosis; some combination of S100 and SOX10 for DM, high-molecular-weight keratin and p63 for spindle cell SCC, desmin and h-caldesmon for leiomyosarcoma (Table 3), and if hemorrhagic, ERG or CD34 for angiosarcoma.
SOX10 (sex-determining region Y-box 10), a nuclear transcription factor expressed in neural crest cells, is crucial for differentiation of Schwann cells and melanocytes.
The tumors with frequent and high SOX10 expression are acinic cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, myoepithelial carcinoma, and pleomorphic adenoma, which presumably show similarities to acini and intercalated ducts.
Other markers, including c-KIT, GFAP, Myb, AR, GCDFP-15, mammaglobin, SOX10, DOG1, and PLGA1, are useful in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors.
is a nuclear transcription factor normally expressed in neural crest cells that is crucial for differentiation of Schwann cells and melanocytes.
The tumor cells are positive for S100, SOX10
, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF), and Mart-1 but are negative for HMB-45.